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Is There a Fuel Cell In your FUTURE? Larry Blair DOE Consultant IFMA 2009 Spring Conference May 15,2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Is There a Fuel Cell In your FUTURE? Larry Blair DOE Consultant IFMA 2009 Spring Conference May 15,2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Is There a Fuel Cell In your FUTURE? Larry Blair DOE Consultant IFMA 2009 Spring Conference May 15,2009

2 OUTLINE Fuel Cell Basics Benefits & Hurdles Potential Markets Current & Future Applications Opportunities & Incentives Summary Focus on US DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Program

3 3 Fuel Cells Defined Fuel (H 2 ) + O 2 / Catalyst Electrical Energy + Heat + Water chemical energy of a reactionelectrical energy Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a reaction directly into electrical energy.

4 4 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) Pros: Low temperature operation, quick start, and high power density Cons: Expensive catalysts Applications: Transportation, stationary, portable power Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Pros: Multiple fuel feedstocks, usable waste heat, and cheap catalysts Cons: Slow start-up, poor transient response, and corrosion issues Applications: Auxiliary power units, distributed generation Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Pros: High energy density Cons: Expensive materials Applications: Portable and micro power Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Pros: Low temperature operation and high efficiency Cons: Low current and power density Applications: Distributed generation Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) Pros: Low temperature operation and high efficiency Cons: Impurity removal Applications: Military and space Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Pros: Multiple fuel feedstocks and usable waste heat Cons: Slow start-up and corrosion issues Applications: Electric utility Types of Fuel Cells

5 5 Why Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ? Hydrogen can be produced from clean, diverse, domestic resources.Hydrogen can be produced from clean, diverse, domestic resources. Fuel cells are highly efficient and can greatly reduce energy use.Fuel cells are highly efficient and can greatly reduce energy use. (>2x more efficient than internal combustion engines; > 80% efficiency possible with combined heat and power)

6 6 Fuel Cell Benefits í Low / Zero Emissions í High Efficiency / Low CO 2 í Wide Range of Applications í Fuel Flexible í Quiet í Simple í High Quality Power

7 7 Achieving GHG and Oil reduction targets will require either battery or fuel cell all-electric vehicles U.S. Oil Consumption (2006)*U.S. CO 2 Emissions by Sector (2006)* * Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) – Annual Energy Review CO 2 emissions mainly due to transportation and electric power sector

8 8 H 2 & Fuel Cells — Where are we today? Hydrogen & Fuel Cells for Transportation (in the U.S.): > 200 fuel cell vehicles > 20 hydrogen-fueled buses ~ 60 fueling stations Several carmakers (including GM, Honda, Daimler) have announced plans for increased deployments in the next few years. Fuel Cells for Stationary Power, Auxiliary Power, and Specialty Vehicles Production & Delivery of Hydrogen In the U.S., there are currently: ~9 million metric tons of H 2 produced annually > 1200 miles of H 2 pipelines Fuel cells can be a cost-competitive option for critical-load facilities, backup power, and forklifts The largest markets for fuel cells today are in stationary power, portable power, auxiliary power units, and forklifts. ~52,000 fuel cells have been shipped worldwide. ~18,000 fuel cells were shipped in 2008.

9 9 Hurdles to Fuel Cell Commercialization

10 Markets and Applications Transportation: Heavy / Light Duty Vehicles 1. Buses / Trucks 2. Locomotives / Shipping 3. Passenger Vehicles Portable / Battery Replacement Consumer Electronics Small Motors Note / Sub-notebooks Boating Cellular Phones Lawn Mower Camcorders, etc. Tools, etc. Consumer Electronics Small Motors Note / Sub-notebooks Boating Cellular Phones Lawn Mower Camcorders, etc. Tools, etc. Stationary / Distributed Power Backup Power Remote Power Premium Power Residential / Commercial Power Backup Power Remote Power Premium Power Residential / Commercial Power

11 Stationary / Distributed Power Increasing Need for Reliability Increasing Need for Power Quality Energy Security (Source Alternative) Shift to Distributed Alternatives Modular Need / Flexibility of Design Industry Deregulation Increasing Need for Reliability Increasing Need for Power Quality Energy Security (Source Alternative) Shift to Distributed Alternatives Modular Need / Flexibility of Design Industry Deregulation Markets and Market Drivers Portable / Battery Replacement High Energy to Weight Ratio Longer Operating Time Performance Faster Cycling / “Charging” High Energy to Weight Ratio Longer Operating Time Performance Faster Cycling / “Charging” Transportation: Heavy / Light Duty Vehicles Environmental Concerns: Pollution Government Support / Legislation Fuel Alternatives Environmental Concerns: Pollution Government Support / Legislation Fuel Alternatives

12 12 Combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems could provide a viable approach to establishing an initial hydrogen fueling infrastructure. Co-production of electricity and hydrogen can contribute to grid independence and produce clean power and fuel for multiple applications. Potential Early Market Application—CHHP

13 13 Early Markets—Combined Heat and Power CHP fuel cell systems for critical load facilities... Provide high-quality, reliable, grid-independent power Improve the effectiveness of data center power use by 40% BENEFITS OF DISTRIBUTED CHP Waste heat is used for space heating & hot water Potential for significant reductions in GHG emissions Potential long-term cost savings Independence from the grid BENEFITS of FUEL CELLS for CHP Low O&M requirements, less down-time Less fluctuation in efficiency across variable loads Zero emissions Low noise and vibration The unique characteristics of fuel cells make them a key enabling technology for CHP in many settings. Preliminary analysis of fuel cells for CHP shows: Fuel Cell CHP applications could realize 20 – 50% reductions in CO 2 emissions. CHP fuel cells could be cost-competitive when the ratio of electricity price to fuel price (“spark spread”) is > 3.

14 14 Photo courtesy of ReliOn Fuel cells provide several advantages for backup-power applications— particularly in the telecommunications sector. Low-cost option for backup power Early Markets—Backup Power 5-kW Outdoor Installations Battery/ Generator PEM fuel cell without incentive PEM fuel cell with incentive 52-hr run time$61,082$61,326$46,326 Fuel Cells... Provide longer continuous run-time, greater durability than batteries Require less maintenance than batteries or generators Can be remotely monitored

15 15 Fuel cells provide several advantages for specialty-vehicle applications (forklifts, baggage-handling tugs, etc.) Early Markets—Specialty Vehicles FUEL CELLS... Allow for rapid refueling — much faster than changing-out or recharging batteries Provide constant power without voltage drop Eliminate space requirements of batteries & chargers May provide substantial cost-savings over battery-powered forklifts Photo courtesy of Hydrogenics Low-cost option for pallet trucks Pallet Trucks – 3kW Using batteries (2 per truck) Using fuel cells (w/o incentive) Using fuel cells (w/incentive) Capital Costs$17,654$23,835$16,684 O&M Costs (includes fuel)$127,539$52,241 Net Present Value Total System Cost $145,193$76,075$68,925 Photo courtesy of Hydrogenics

16 16 The Program is broadening its scope and balancing its efforts to achieve a comprehensive approach to fuel cells for near-, mid-, and longer-term applications. U.S. efforts to overcome obstacles Rebalancing the Program

17 17 Market Transformation Projects Ongoing Projects include deployment of 39 forklifts and 43 backup power systems. Projects involve the FAA, Postal Service, the Defense Logistics Agency, and other Department of Defense installations. Some projects include on-site renewable H 2 - generation. Planned Activities: In FY 2009, the Program is planning to team with DoD and FAA to administer a multi-agency deployment program. Deployment of more than 60 backup-power units planned. Will incorporate additional renewable H 2 -generation systems. Ongoing Projects include deployment of 39 forklifts and 43 backup power systems. Projects involve the FAA, Postal Service, the Defense Logistics Agency, and other Department of Defense installations. Some projects include on-site renewable H 2 - generation. Planned Activities: In FY 2009, the Program is planning to team with DoD and FAA to administer a multi-agency deployment program. Deployment of more than 60 backup-power units planned. Will incorporate additional renewable H 2 -generation systems. The Program is facilitating the early market adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies across the federal sector. Photo courtesy of Hydrogenics All market transformation projects involve extensive data collection and analysis to provide information on performance and reliability in real-world operation.

18 18 DOE Vehicle/Infrastructure Demonstration (four teams in 50/50 cost-shared projects) Verified performance in 140 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen stations: EFFICIENCY: 53 – 58% (>2x higher than gasoline internal combustion engines) RANGE: ~196 – 254 miles FUEL CELL SYSTEM DURABILITY: 1977 hours, projected to 10% degradation (~59,500 miles) 1987 hours, observed, with more than 10% degradation (~59,500 miles) Technology Validation Additional projects include: Demonstrating integration of renewable power and hydrogen production Data collection and analysis with other agencies ─ ─DOT’s Fuel Cell Bus Program ─ ─DOD’s fuel cell forklifts Technologies must be validated in integrated systems, under real-world conditions.

19 19 Deploying Fuel Cells at DOE Facilities DOE intends to “walk the talk” by deploying fuel cells at its facilities; the Program has begun to identify opportunities. There are 19 DOE lab sites, with a potential for about 50 – 80 MW of CHP. Ideal sites: Require constant, consistent, reliable, quiet powerRequire constant, consistent, reliable, quiet power Can effectively use waste heat for heating and coolingCan effectively use waste heat for heating and cooling Would combine fuel cell installations with budgeted projects.Would combine fuel cell installations with budgeted projects.

20 20 Other projects would include deployments of backup power, specialty vehicles, and fuel cell buses—by several agencies. Backup Power Fuel Cell Deployments # of Units Total kW DOD/USMC - 29 Palms, CA420 DHS El Centro Sector420 DOD/USAF Cheyenne Mountain420 DHS NY Canadian Border Location420 DOC/NOAA (Maryland site)420 NASA (2 sites)15100 Fort Sumter (includes H2 generation via solar electrolysis) 420 Specialty Vehicle Fuel Cell Deployments # of Units Total kW USPS - California sites (15 forklifts,7kW per forklift) Proposed Market Transformation Projects Fuel Cell Bus Deployment Locations # of Units Total kW FC Bus - Camp Pendleton - 40ft24120 FC Bus - West Point - 35ft735 FC Bus - Fort Leonard Wood - 35ft735 FC Bus - Fort Jackson, SC / Shaw Air Force Base, SC - 35 ft FC Bus - Warner Robins, GA - 35 ft735 FC Bus - Kilauea Military Camp, HI - 35ft735

21 New food market in Denham, MA – 60,000 sq.ft. On- site power with 400 kW ultra-clean fuel cell from UTC Power ~90% Electrical power – grid independent operation ~100% Hot water CO 2 Mitigation benefits = planting 175 acres of trees NO 2 Benefits = more than 90 cars off the road per year $400,000 Grant from the state of MA

22 22 This recent act provides incentives and opportunities for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act Passed by House and Senate Feb 13, 2009 Signed by President Obama Feb 17, 2009 $787 B total, including –$16.8 B for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy –$2 B for DOE Office of Science (including $400 M for the Advanced Research Projects Agency) –$3.4 B for Fossil Energy R&D –$4.5 B for Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability (Smart Grid) –$6 B for Loan Guarantee Program –$5.6 B for GSA (includes high performance green federal buildings and fleets) –$300 M for DoD Energy research, including fuel cells Policies and Initiatives in the U.S. The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (H.R.1)

23 23 Business Tax Credit –Applies to commercial, industrial and utility sectors. –30% of expenditures or $3,000/kW (whichever is smaller). Min capacity of 0.5 kW. Electricity only efficiency of 30% or greater. Policies & Initiatives in the U.S. Federal Tax Credits Federal tax credits currently in place to support the deployment of fuel cells in the commercial, industrial and utility sectors. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Tax Credit – –Applies to commercial, industrial, and utility sectors. – –Applies to systems up to 50 MW that exceed 60% energy efficiency. Efficiency requirement waived for systems that use biomass for at least 90% of the system energy source (but credit may be reduced). – –Credit equal to 10% of expenditures. or…

24 24 Some tax credits affecting fuel cells were expanded. Tax Credits in the Conference Bill Hydrogen Fueling Facility Credit Increases the hydrogen fueling credit from 30% or $30,000 to 30% or $200,000. Grants for Energy Property in Lieu of Tax Credits Allows facilities with insufficient tax liability to apply for a grant instead of claiming the Investment Tax credit (ITC) or Production Tax credit (PTC). Only entities that pay taxes are eligible. Manufacturing CreditCreates 30% credit for investment in property used for manufacturing fuel cells and other technologies Residential Energy Efficiency Credit Raises ITC dollar cap for residential fuel cells in joint occupancy dwellings to $3,334/kW. (H.R.1) The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (H.R.1) Tax Credits

25 25 Many provisions offer funding opportunities for fuel cells, even if not specifically mentioned. Application Funded Opportunity Amount Stationary fuel cells for CHP (hot water and power) Energy efficiency improvements in federal buildings and HUD housing $4.5 B (federal) $250 M (HUD) Vehicles and fueling infrastructure Alternative fueled vehicles for Clean Cities and GSA federal fleets $300 M (Clean Cities) $300 M (GSA) Development of hydrogen and fuel cell industry State Energy Program$3.1 B Hydrogen for grid storageSmart Grid programs$4.5 B ForkliftsEfficiency improvements at DoD facilities, and electrification infrastructure at ports $3.7 B (DoD) $400 M (electrification) AllLoan guarantees for projects to reduce pollution and GHGs including fuel cells for residential, industrial or transportation applications. $6 B Opportunities for Fuel Cells

26 26 SUMMARY Hydrogen and fuel cells offer significant environmental, energy security and employment benefits - U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program working towards advancing technology to realize these benefits. The development path of hydrogen/fuel cells technology is a continuous one – immediate markets already exist today to start taking advantage of technology’s benefits. Scenario analyses conducted indicate that supportive policies could increase the technology’s market share at costs that are in line with other policies that support national goals. Analysis has shown that government acquisition efforts allow federal government to play important role in reducing technology costs, supporting a domestic supplier base, and supporting development of infrastructure required for the transition to hydrogen. ORNL and NAS studies concluded incentives and policies are required to initiate the transition to hydrogen for transportation. Incentives in place or recently established offer many opportunities to further enhance R&D and stimulate market development and transition to hydrogen for transportation. Hydrogen and fuel cells offer significant environmental, energy security and employment benefits - U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program working towards advancing technology to realize these benefits. The development path of hydrogen/fuel cells technology is a continuous one – immediate markets already exist today to start taking advantage of technology’s benefits. Scenario analyses conducted indicate that supportive policies could increase the technology’s market share at costs that are in line with other policies that support national goals. Analysis has shown that government acquisition efforts allow federal government to play important role in reducing technology costs, supporting a domestic supplier base, and supporting development of infrastructure required for the transition to hydrogen. ORNL and NAS studies concluded incentives and policies are required to initiate the transition to hydrogen for transportation. Incentives in place or recently established offer many opportunities to further enhance R&D and stimulate market development and transition to hydrogen for transportation.

27 27 Special Thanks to - DOE Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Logan Energy

28 28 Benefits of Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Studies have shown that hydrogen and fuel cells can significantly reduce oil use and greenhouse gas emissions. Source: Dr. Sandy Thomas, “NHA Transportation Study,” November 2008— conducted using data and models developed by his group, EIA and Argonne National Laboratory. Each technology scenario assumes sales of vehicles using that technology will achieve 75% of total sales by 2100.

29 29 Market Transformation OBJECTIVES Enable federal agencies to implement fuel cell technologies Increase sales & manufacturing volumes of fuel cells to achieve economies of scale Support development of national infrastructure and domestic supplier base Improve user confidence in fuel cell reliability OBJECTIVES Enable federal agencies to implement fuel cell technologies Increase sales & manufacturing volumes of fuel cells to achieve economies of scale Support development of national infrastructure and domestic supplier base Improve user confidence in fuel cell reliability The Program is working to reduce the non-technical barriers facing the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and to enable the federal government to lead by example Recent increase in fuel cell investment tax credit (to $3,000/kW) will help accelerate progress.


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