Scale of Opportunity Pivotal Engine is a A multi-application technology It is a global industry opportunity Pivotal will grow into a global power- unit provider bridging the chasm between efficiency / low CO 2 and viability 3
The engine industry is very mature so incremental development has been the safe option But, the world is changing and external forces are disrupting ‘business as usual’ New demands bring opportunity and sometimes the simple solution is best 4
What we have Simple, highly developed and truly novel ICE Multi-fuel capability The ideal hydrogen fuel design High thermal efficiency High power density Secured global IP A comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and the path to commercialization 5
6 What is an Internal Combustion Engine ? A device that processes fuel/air - harnesses combustion Engine Torque Fuel
7 Fuel characteristics dictate design Hydrogen is a very different fuel so - incremental changes to convert the old engine will not deliver the hydrogen engine we need Progress often demands that we take a step back in order to head in the right direction The Pivotal design presents a leapfrog opportunity
8 Hydrogen Combustion Characteristics Low volumetric power density Low energy required for ignition High flame speed (at stoichiometric ratios) High auto-ignition temperature Short quenching distance High diffusivity
9 Hydrogen Combustion Characteristics Low volumetric power density Low energy required for ignition High flame speed (at stoichiometric ratios) High auto-ignition temperature Short quenching distance High diffusivity
10 High flame speed at or near-to stoichiometric ratios
11 Hydrogen Combustion Characteristics Low volumetric power density Low energy required for ignition High flame speed (at stoichiometric ratios) High auto-ignition temperature Short quenching distance High diffusivity
24 An Automotive Comparison Toyota V6Pivotal Opp 4 Capacity (cc /CI) 3000 / 1832000 /122 Power (hp)220 Weight (lb)380160 Box Size (cu.ft)126
25 Do we use our car less? or do we take less car with us?
26 What will drive the change to a hydrogen economy? Competition for reducing oil supplies Public awareness on the effects of CO 2 Cheap hydrogen from waste disposal Clean domestic and industrial CHP Storage and conversion of sustainably produced power Clean City Programmes – Hydrogen buses, taxis, delivery trucks, rubbish removal (other captured fleets)
27 The Pivotal Engine is the catalyst to grow the hydrogen/electric economy There is no insurmountable technology gap The full range of technologies needed to deliver efficient hydrogen/electric hybrid vehicles is available now.
Designer and assembler of the London H2 fleet Hybrid System Integrator Supplier of the Hybrid Propulsion System Supplier of the Electric Storage System Integrator of the selected Hydrogen combustion engine into the vehicle Project Role
Combustion is still the best means to convert hydrogen fuel to driving torque The Pivotal engine is the low cost and simple solution - it presents an opportunity to develop new industry. Good design - changes everything YES WE CAN Recognize - invest - work - prosper
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