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Solar-Hydrogen for Australia’s Energy Future Leigh Sheppard Solar Energy Technologies School of Natural Sciences The University of Western Sydney.

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Presentation on theme: "Solar-Hydrogen for Australia’s Energy Future Leigh Sheppard Solar Energy Technologies School of Natural Sciences The University of Western Sydney."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solar-Hydrogen for Australia’s Energy Future Leigh Sheppard Solar Energy Technologies School of Natural Sciences The University of Western Sydney

2 WHO DO YOU KNOW? List 1 Thomas Edison Archimedes Marie Curie Leonardo da Vinci Galileo Charles Darwin Isaac Newton Albert Einstein Louis Pasteur Daniel Bernouilli

3 WHO DO YOU KNOW? List 2 William Gates III Warren Buffett Carlos Slim Helu Lawrence Ellison Ingvar Kamprad Karl Albrecht Mukesh Ambani Lakshmi Mittal Theo Albrecht Amancio Ortega

4 WHO DO YOU KNOW? List 1List 2 Thomas EdisonWilliam Gates III ArchimedesWarren Buffett Marie CurieCarlos Slim Helu Leonardo da VinciLawrence Ellison GalileoIngvar Kamprad Charles DarwinKarl Albrecht Isaac NewtonMukesh Ambani Albert EinsteinLakshmi Mittal Louis PasteurTheo Albrecht Daniel BernouilliAmancio Ortega

5 REASONS TO BECOME A SCIENTIST Desire to learn and understand –Challenge personal limitations –Become knowledgeable of the world Sense of discovery and pioneering –Always at the frontier Science allows you to touch peoples lives –Understand problems and discover solutions –Present and future

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7 GLOBAL ENERGY DEMAND 15.1% 20.7% 20.5%

8 WORLD ENERGY SOURCES (2004 data) 87%

9 GREEN- HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

10 FOSSIL FUEL DOMINO EFFECT  NECESSARY TO INCREASE UTILISATION OF SUSTAINABLE AND RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES GLOBAL ENERGY DEMAND FOSSIL FUEL RESERVES FOSSIL FUEL COSTS IS THIS SUSTAINABLE ? GLOBAL ENERGY DEMAND FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IS THIS ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY ?

11 Advantages Concentrated energy Transportable Storable Easily utilised FOSSIL FUEL CHARACTERISTICS

12 Disadvantages Limited quantity Pollution Unequal distribution Security uncertain Advantages Concentrated energy Transportable Storable Easily utilised FOSSIL FUEL CHARACTERISTICS

13 HYDROGEN vs. FOSSIL FUELS Advantages of Hydrogen - Zero carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions Additional utilisation potential Improved distribution efficiencies Ecologically safer fuel

14 ISN’T HYDROGEN UNSAFE? Hindenburg Hydrogen bomb

15 Time = 0 seconds In which car would you prefer to crash? H 2 Fuel Gasoline Fuel

16 Time = 3 seconds H 2 Fuel Gasoline Fuel

17 Time = 1 minute H 2 Fuel Gasoline Fuel

18 Time = 1 minute 30 seconds H 2 Fuel Gasoline Fuel

19 Time = 2 minutes 20 seconds Gasoline Fuel

20 US HYDROGEN VEHICLE TRIALS

21 ECTOS-HYDROGEN STATION Example of Pre-Commercial Filling Station H2OH2OH2OH2O Energy Electrolyser Storage Compressor Dispenser Icel. New Business Venture Fund, Reykjavik Energy, The National Power Company, Hitaveita Sudurnesja, University of Iceland, The Technological Institute of Iceland, Fertilizer Plant, Reykjavik Resources, Government of Iceland VistOrka

22 AUSTRALIAN HYDROGEN BUS TRIAL “Buses currently contribute about 2.7 percent of road transport greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing the entire Australian bus fleet with hydrogen- powered buses would cut the carbon dioxide being currently produced by two million tonnes, the equivalent of taking 500,000 cars off the road.” Media Release Minister for the Environment and Heritage Senator the Hon. Ian Campbell 5 October 2004

23 HYDROGEN Is not Clean When Produced Current H 2 Technology  From fossil fuels (Natural Gas)  CO 2 Emissions Sustainable H 2 Technology  From renewable and H 2 O  No CO 2 Emissions

24 HYDROGEN ENERGY

25 WHAT ABOUT RENEWABLES? (6000x annual consumption) (25x annual consumption) 3 TW Tidal Australian Sun 1 hour can power Australia for a year! 4 days of can power the world for a year!

26 BASIC CONCEPT of SOLAR-HYDROGEN Photo–Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen from Water H2OH2O PHOTO-CATALYST (TiO 2 ) HYDROGEN GAS SUNLIGHT ADVANTAGES Sustainable and environmentally friendly Direct solar to hydrogen conversion No H 2 /O 2 separation required Stored fuel for use anywhere and anytime

27 TiO 2 is commonly known as: Titanium dioxide, titania, rutile TiO 2 is used in: Toothpaste, sunscreen, paint, food colourings Why do we use TiO 2 ? Cheap – few $ per kg Abundant – Australia is world production leader Properties can be widely manipulated Will not corrode – Survives for centuries WHAT IS TiO 2

28 Materials Engineering – Imposition of Desired Material Properties - Absorption of Sunlight Reactivity with Water PHOTOSENSITIVE OXIDE SEMICONDUCTORS TiO 2 Catalysts Commercial Processed

29 Ti 4+ O 2- Ti 4+ O 2- Ti 4+ O 2- Ti 4+ O 2- Ti 4+ O 2- Ti 4+ O 2- Ti 4+ O 2- Ti 4+ DEFECT ENGINEERING Ideal TiO 2

30 Ti 4+ O 2- Ti 3+ Ti 4+ Ti 3+ Ti 4+ O 2- O-O- O-O- O-O- O-O- Ti 4+ Ti 3+ O 2- A-A- Ti 3+ A 3- O 2- O-O- Ti 3+ O 2- Ti 3+ M 5+ O 2- Ti 4+ O-O- O 2- M 3+ O 2- Ti 4+ DEFECT ENGINEERING Real (Defected) TiO 2

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33 SUMMARY Our standard of living is linked to energy supply Growing energy demand fed by fossil fuels –CO 2 emissions and climate change Solar-hydrogen offers a solution –Sustainable and environmentally friendly Thank you! Please ask your questions


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