2ElectronegativityElectronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.If the electronegativity of an atom is high, then it attracts and holds on to electrons.If the electronegativity of an atom is low, thenit tends to give electrons away.Electronegativity differences thus determine bond type and explains what is meant by polar bonds and polar molecules.
3Electronegativity• If the difference in electronegativities is between:– 1.7 to 4.0: Ionic– 0.3 to 1.7: Polar Covalent– 0.0 to 0.3: Non-Polar CovalentExample: NaClNa = 0.8, Cl = 3.0Difference is 2.2So this is an ionic bond .
4Chemical bonds What is a bond? A bond is a link or force that binds two or a group of atoms together to form a compound.The type of bonds found in biomolecules can be divided into two types ;1-Covalent bonds.2-Non-covalent bonds.(including , H bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic bonds, Van derWaals forces ,).
5Weak bonds are bonds that form between different molecules or within different parts of a large molecule. While these bonds are not strong enough to hold a molecule together they are extremely important because of their large number. There are three basic types of weak bonds (Hydrogen bonds, Hydrophobic Interactions and Van der Waals Forces).
7Hydrogen bonds What are they? A special case of permanent dipole-dipole interactionsThey are stronger than van der Waals forces.Molecules with hydrogen bonds have higher boiling points than molecules that don’t.
8Hydrogen bonds What do you need? A hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom … N, O or F.A lone pair of electrons on the electronegative atom.If only one of these conditions is met, you don’t get hydrogen bonding.
9Hydrogen bonds Give me an example! methane, CH4 … This does not have any hydrogen bonds. Carbon is not very electronegative, and it has no lone pairs of electrons in methane.
10Hydrogen bonds Give me a real example! ammonia, NH3 … This does have hydrogen bonds.Nitrogen is very electronegative, and it has one lone pair of electrons in ammonia.
11Hydrogen bonds Give me another example! water, H2O … This has not one, but two hydrogen bonds.Oxygen is very electronegative, and it has two lone pairs of electrons in water.
12Hydrogen bonds Remember, you need: A hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom … N, O or F.A lone pair of electrons on the electronegative atom.If only one of these conditions is met, you don’t get hydrogen bonding.
13The Ionic Bond Visit www.worldofteaching.com For 100’s of free powerpoints
14Ionic bondGenerally chemists consider this to be the strongest of all bonds, as long as no water is present. In biological systems, ionic bonds are weak due to this fact.
15Helium, neon and argon are atoms which do not react with other atoms. We call them the Inert Gases (or Noble Gases) because of this.Each of these gases has a full outer electron shell (orbit).10p10n18p22n2p2n4Ne20He210Ar40182,82,8,8
18Na e.c. 2,8,1 Atom (Na +) e.c. (2,8)+ Ion + The Sodium atom has 1 Electron in it’s outer shell.Nae.c. 2,8,1Atom+The Sodium loses 1 electron to leave a complete outer shell.It is now a Sodium ion with a charge of 1 +(Na +)e.c. (2,8)+Ion
19Cl e.c. 2,8,7 atom (Cl - ) e.c. (2,8,8)- Ion - The Chlorine atom has 7 electrons in it’s outer shell.Cle.c. 2,8,7atom-(Cl - )The Chlorine gains 1 electron to gain a complete outer shell.It is now a Chlorine ion with a charge of 1 -e.c. (2,8,8)-Ion
20+ - The Ionic Bond Sodium atom Na Chlorine atom Cl Sodium ion (Na +) Chlorine ion(Cl -)The sodium atom loses one electron to attain a complete outer shell and become a positive ion (Na +). The Chlorine atom gains one electron to attain a complete outer shell and become a negative ion (Cl –). Strong electrostatic forces attract the sodium and chlorine ions.
21Held together by strong electrostatic forces Opposite charges attract Ionic CompoundsHeld together by strong electrostatic forcesOpposite charges attractHigh melting points and boiling pointsRegular structures – giant ionic latticesWhen melted or dissolved ionic compounds conduct electricity
22Covalent Bonding Visit www.worldofteaching.com For 100’s of free powerpoints
25Each outer shell has 8 electrons Chlorine molecule Cl2Electrons sharedEach outer shell has 8 electronsForces (bonds) between atoms in the molecule very strongForces between molecules very weakMolecular or covalent compounds are usually gases or liquids – they have low melting points and low boiling pointsMolecules have no overall electric charge
31Non-polar covalent bond. Covalent bonds; a covalent bonds forms when two atoms share a pair of electrons together ( thus each atom will be donating an electron to form the bond) .If each atom donates 2electrons a double bond is formed which is stronger and more rigid, and a triple bond is formed when 3electrons is donated by each atom.-It is the strongest chemical bond.-It can be a non- ploar covalent bond , which arises when the two atoms involved are of the same element thus having the same electronegativity thus share the pair of electrons equally.Non-polar covalent bond.
32Covalent bondOr a polar covalent bond when it is formed between two different atoms of different electronegativity ,thus one atom has a stronger pull on the pair of electrons resulting in a shift of electron density toward the more electronegative atom.Such a covalent bond is polar, and will have a dipole (one end is positive and theother end negative). The degree of polarity and the magnitude of the bond dipole will be proportional to the difference in electronegativity of the bonded atoms.
36Hydrophobic interactions and van der waal forces
37. Hydrophobic Interactions; When non-polar substances such as fats or oils are placed in water they tend to clump together. The attraction of the hydrophobic (or nonpolar) parts of molecules to each other in the presence of water (or another polar fluid). Molecules containing substantial non-polar regions will attract one another as a result of these hydrophobic interactions.Van der Waals Forces;van der Waals' forces are forces that exist between MOLECULES of (they are intermolecular bonds or forces) the same substance . Which can be resembled by the attraction that occurs between polar molecules (between their opposite partial charges) ,when they are in close proximity to one another. It also occurs between non-polar molecules due to the small attractions resulting from the constant movement of the electrons around the atoms of the molecules. These very weak attractions are known as Van der Waals Forces