Presentation on theme: "Reactivity Series of Metals"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reactivity Series of Metals Reactions of MetalsEffect of Heat on Metal Carbonates
2 Reactivity Series of Metals Chemical Properties of MetalsMetal reaction with cold water & steamMetal reaction with hydrochloric acidReaction of Metals: Displacement ReactionsWith aqueous ions of another metalWith the oxide of another metalReaction of Metal OxidesWith carbonWith hydrogenEffect of Heat on Metal CarbonatesThermal stability & reactivityReactivity Series of Metals
3 Recap: Chemical Properties of Metals Reaction with Water (Cold Water)Metal + Cold Water Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen GasEg. 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)Which are some metals that react with cold water?
4 Recap: Chemical Properties of Metals Reaction with Water (Steam)Metal + Steam Metal Oxide + Hydrogen GasEg. Mg(s) + H2O(g) MgO(s) + H2(g)Which metals only react with steam?
5 Recap: Chemical Properties of Metals Reaction with Hydrochloric AcidMetal + Hydrochloric Acid Salt + Hydrogen GasEg. 2K(s) + 2HCl(l) 2KCl(aq) + H2(g)The more vigorous the reactionThe higher it is in the reactivity seriesThe more reactive is the metal
6 Reaction of Metals With the Aqueous Ions of Another Metal Displacement of metals from solutionMore reactive metals can displace less reactive metals from their salt solutions.This can be used to find the position of metals in the reactivity series.
7 Iron Nail in Copper(II) Sulphate Solution Observations:Reddish-brown solid forms on the surface of the iron nailBlue solution becomes pale greenFe (s) CuSO4 (aq) FeSO4 (aq) Cu (s)IronCopper(II) SulphateSolutionIron(II) SulphateSolutionCopper
8 Iron Nail in Copper(II) Sulphate Solution Brown solid: Copper metalSolution turns pale greenCopper has been removed from the solution.Iron(II) sulphate solution is pale green in colour.We say that…Iron has displaced copper from the copper(II) sulphate solution.
9 What will happen when a piece of magnesium strip is immersed in a solution of copper(II) sulphate? Think!
10 Some Possible Observations Deposit of the more reactive metal (from its aqueous solution)Colour of the solution may changeHeat may be given offGrey: zinc, iron, leadReddish-brown: copper
11 Displacement Reactions are Redox Reactions The more reactive metal is oxidizedThe less reactive metal is reducedFor example,Chemical Equation:Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)Ionic Equation:Fe (s) + Cu2+ (aq) Fe2+ (aq) + Cu (s)REDOX reaction!Copper(II) ions are reduced to become copper atomsIron atoms are oxidized to become iron(II) ions
12 Displacement Reactions are Redox Reactions A more reactive metal:readily gives up electrons in reactionshas greater tendency to form positive ionsAs a result…A more reactive metal can displacea less reactive metal,from its solution or metallic oxide.
13 Reaction of Metals With the Oxide of Another Metal Displacement of metals from metallic oxidesA more reactive metal can reduce the oxide of a less reactive metal.For example: Thermit reaction2Al (s) + Fe2O3 (s) Al2O3 (s) + 2Fe (l)Magnesium acts as a fuse. It provides enough energy to start the reaction.
14 Reaction of Metals With the Oxide of Another Metal Thermit Reaction2Al (s) + Fe2O3 (s) Al2O3 (s) + 2Fe (l)The more reactive the metal is, the more readily it forms compounds.Unreactive metals tend to stay umcombined.Iron(III) ions are reduced to become iron atomsAluminium atoms are oxidized to become aluminium(III) ions
15 Reaction of Metal Oxides With Carbon Carbon can remove oxygen from the oxides of metals that are not too high up in the Reactivity Series.The lower the position of a metal in the Reactivity Series, the easier it is for carbon to remove oxygen from the metal oxide.
16 Reaction of Metal Oxides With Carbon potassium oxidesodium oxidecalcium oxidemagnesium oxideoxides are not reduced by carbonzinc oxideiron(II) oxidelead(II) oxidecopper(II) oxideoxides are reduced by carbonsilver oxideoxide is reduced by heatingsilver oxide decomposed to give silver and oxygen
17 Reaction of Metal Oxides With Carbon The Importance!Reaction of Metal Oxides With Carbonmetals need to be extracted from their ores before we can use themmetals below magnesium are often extracted from their ores by reduction with carbon (WHY?)metals above zinc cannot be extracted by reduction with carbon bc they are stable (THEN WHAT?)
18 metal oxide + hydrogen metal + steam Reaction of Metal Oxides With HydrogenHydrogen can remove oxygen from metallic oxides, producing the metal and water(steam).metal oxide + hydrogen metal + steamThe lower the position of a metal in the Reactivity Series, the easier it is for hydrogen to remove oxygen from the metal oxide.
19 reaction with hydrogen Reaction of Metal Oxides With Hydrogenmetal oxidereaction with hydrogenpotassium oxidesodium oxidecalcium oxidemagnesium oxidezinc oxideheated metal oxides are not reduced by hydrogeniron(II) oxidelead(II) oxidecopper(II) oxidesilver oxideheated metal oxides are reduced by hydrogen
20 Effect of Heat on Metal Carbonates: Thermal Stability & Reactivity Most carbonates decompose when heated strongly to produce a metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas.The ease of decomposition depends on the position of the metal in the reactivity series.Recall the reactivity series.
21 Thermal Stability of Metal Carbonates Effect of HeatPotassium CarbonateStable to heatNo visible reactionSodium CarbonateCalcium CarbonateDecomposes into metal oxide and carbon dioxideMagnesium CarbonateZinc CarbonateIron (III) CarbonateLead CarbonateCopper(II) CarbonateSilver CarbonateDecomposes into silver and carbon dioxideMetal Metal Oxide + Carbon DioxideSilver carbonate decomposes to form silver oxide, which further decomposes to silver bc it is thermally unstable.
22 Reactions with water & dilute acids: More vigorous reaction Higher in the reactivity series The metal is more reactiveReaction with metal carbonates:The more stable the metal carbonate is to heat, the higher it is in the reactivity series.
23 Class Activity & Discussion Check this out!ctions/projectfolder/flashfiles/redox/home.htmlClass Activity & Discussion
24 So, what have you learnt today? Displacement ReactionThey are redox reactions.A more reactive metal can displace a less reactive metal, from its solution or metallic oxide.Carbonates: Thermal stability & reactivityThe more stable the metal carbonate is to heat, the higher it is in the reactivity series.