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Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut voor ZeeonderzoekRoyal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research PALEOSALINITY RECONSTRUCTIONS BASED ON STABLE HYDROGEN ISOTOPIC.

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Presentation on theme: "Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut voor ZeeonderzoekRoyal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research PALEOSALINITY RECONSTRUCTIONS BASED ON STABLE HYDROGEN ISOTOPIC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut voor ZeeonderzoekRoyal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research PALEOSALINITY RECONSTRUCTIONS BASED ON STABLE HYDROGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF ALGAL BIOMARKERS. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS! Marcel T.J. van der Meer (NIOZ) Marianne Baas (NIOZ) Ellen Hopmans (NIOZ) Albert Benthien (AWI) Ingrid Zondervan (AWI) Jelle Bijma (AWI) Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté (NIOZ/UU) Stefan Schouten (NIOZ)

2 ● Testing climate models for future climate change critically depend on our ability to quantitatively reconstruct past climate. ● Paleosalinity is the single most important oceanographic parameter which currently can still not be accurately quantified from sedimentary records. ● D water correlates strongly with salinity.

3 ● Paul (2002): relatively constant fractionation of ~232 ‰ between δD water and the δD of C 37 alkenones produced by E. huxleyi. ● Englebrecht and Sachs (2005) reported a similar fractionation of ~225 ‰. ● Schouten et al. (2006) have shown that hydrogen isotope fractionation by E. huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica depends on: - δD water - salinity - growth rate Estimating D water from D alkenones.

4  alkenones-water versus salinity

5  alkenones-water versus growth rate

6  Heterocapsa triquetra dinosterol versus salinity

7 BC53 Cruise 134/8 R/V Knorr 1988 Black Sea

8 organic-rich sapropel: Unit II varved coccolith ooze: Unit I transition sapropel 1 st occurrence of E. Huxleyi Jones and Gagnon, 1994 Salinity < 11 Salinity > 11 Shift from Unit II to Unit I: The invasion of E. huxleyi has been attributed to a increase in salinity from below 11 in Unit II to above 11 in Unit I (Bukry, 1974) 1635± ±160 yrs BP

9 D of C 37 alkenones from the Black Sea

10 Paleo-salinity estimates

11 Dinocysts

12 D of C37 alkenones and of dinosterol from the Black Sea.

13 Paleo-salinity estimates based on alkenones and on dinosterol

14 Black Sea salinity gradient Leonov 2003

15 Isotope analysis of individual alkenones: better or not?

16  C37 alkenones-water versus temperature.

17 D of individual alkenones versus temperature C 37:3 C 37:2 Weigthed average Temp (°C) D (‰ vs. VSMOW)

18 D of individual alkenones versus U k’ 37. Uk’37 D (‰ vs. VSMOW)

19 D of individual alkenones versus salinity. Salinity D (‰ vs. VSMOW)

20 C 37:2 C 37:3 C 37:2 C 37:3 C 37:2 Warm Cold The idea! High D low D

21 Red Sea TEX 86 and qualitative salinity indicator. Bab el Mandeb

22 Sampling sites

23 TEX 86

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26 Relationship between TEX86 index and sea surface temperature and salinity in the Red Sea Northern Red Sea Southern Red Sea Gulf of Aden Global calibration TEX 86 SST (°C) Salinity Trommer et al., in preparation

27 Interpretation of the TEX 86 index in the Red Sea Trommer et al., in preparation

28 Calculated contribution of the endemic Red Sea Crenarchaeota population. Trommer et al., in preparation

29 Qualitative salinity indicator: diether membrane lipid produced by halophilic Archaea.

30 Qualitative salinity indicator S < 38.6

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32 Light experiment  alkenones-water versus growth rate

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34 Light experiment D versus light intensity

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