Presentation on theme: "The Index of Refraction of Solid Hydrogen Lieutenant Colonel Brian Tom*, USAF Siddhartha Bhasker* Yuki Miyamoto ‡ Dr. Takamasa Momose ‡ Dr. Benjamin McCall*"— Presentation transcript:
The Index of Refraction of Solid Hydrogen Lieutenant Colonel Brian Tom*, USAF Siddhartha Bhasker* Yuki Miyamoto ‡ Dr. Takamasa Momose ‡ Dr. Benjamin McCall* † *Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign † Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ‡ Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia
Overview Solid hydrogen backgroundSolid hydrogen background Why measure the index of refraction?Why measure the index of refraction? ExperimentExperiment ResultsResults ConclusionsConclusions
Solid Hydrogen Background Study of solid hydrogen is >70 years oldStudy of solid hydrogen is >70 years old –Quantum effects –Spin echo/relaxation NMR properties –Raman scattering Areas open for studyAreas open for study –Mechanical properties –Index of refraction Van Kranendonk, Solid Hydrogen, Plenum Press, Souers, Hydrogen Properties for Fusion Energy, U of Cal. Press, 75,1986. H2H2
Why measure the index? Stokes Raman shift in H 2Stokes Raman shift in H 2 –Obtain wavelengths for spectroscopy Can use multipass cell with H 2 gasCan use multipass cell with H 2 gas –Requires high reflectivity/high damage threshold mirrors ω= 683 nm 953 nm 1576 nm ν =1 ν=0 ω Pump =532nm Brasseur et al., Optics Ltrs., 23, 367, Brasseur et al., JOSA Comm., McCall et al., App. Phys. Ltrs., 82, McCall, OSU Conference Talk, 2003.
Why measure the index? Condensed phases are more efficient forCondensed phases are more efficient for Raman shift Raman shift –7000 x gain –Higher number density –Smaller line width Consistent with observations of Katsuragawa et al.Consistent with observations of Katsuragawa et al. PhaseNumberDensity (cm -3 ),n LinewidthGain Gaseous H 2 3.1E2128.4GHz Liquid H 2 2.1E GHz Solid H 2 2.6E22 <7 MHz Souers, Hydrogen Properties for Fusion Energy, U of Cal. Press, Uetake et al., Phys. Rev. A., 61, Katsuragawa et al., Optics Letters, , McCall et al., App. Phys. Ltrs., 82, 2003.
Why Measure the Index? Continuous wave, Stokes down-converted light using solid H 2Continuous wave, Stokes down-converted light using solid H 2
Experiment: The art of making solid hydrogen >99.9% pure parahydrogen used in both Kyoto and Champaign-Urbana>99.9% pure parahydrogen used in both Kyoto and Champaign-Urbana Two methods of crystal growthTwo methods of crystal growth –Vapor Deposition –Crystallization from liquid from liquid Souers, P.,Hydrogen Properties for Fusion Energy, U of Cal., 1986.
Experiment: Kyoto to nm434.8 to nm Measured differenceMeasured difference between vacuum and solid H 2 and solid H 2 –Measurement taken at taken at 10 meters 10 meters
= Vacuum in cell = Hydrogen in cell
Wavelength (nm) Index* (Kyoto) Index † (C-U) DFG Diode Diode Argon Ion Preliminary Results *6 K † K = C-U Target Wavelengths
Preliminary Results K K =C-U data
Conclusions Solid hydrogen is an efficient tool for generating light for spectroscopySolid hydrogen is an efficient tool for generating light for spectroscopy More measurements to comeMore measurements to come CW, Stokes-shiftedCW, Stokes-shifted light via solid H 2 light via solid H 2 is on the horizon is on the horizon
Acknowledgements United States Air ForceUnited States Air Force National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation The Packard FoundationThe Packard Foundation Prof. Takeshi Oka, University of ChicagoProf. Takeshi Oka, University of Chicago