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2  U.S. DOE continues to fund hydrogen fuel cell research  Work with both vehicles and fueling stations for the public  Advanced technologies – increased.

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Presentation on theme: "2  U.S. DOE continues to fund hydrogen fuel cell research  Work with both vehicles and fueling stations for the public  Advanced technologies – increased."— Presentation transcript:


2 2  U.S. DOE continues to fund hydrogen fuel cell research  Work with both vehicles and fueling stations for the public  Advanced technologies – increased production  Completely renewable, not a finite resource Introduction

3 3 Lesson 1: Introduction to Hydrogen

4 4 Objectives  Describe what hydrogen is and how to identify it  Explain the basic history of hydrogen  Describe how hydrogen may help the environment  Explain how hydrogen may help stimulate the economy  Describe what energy security is and how to use hydrogen to attain it

5 5  Simplest element in the universe – one proton and one electron  Occurs naturally as a gas  Can be used to create energy through combustion or use in fuel cells Definition of Hydrogen

6 6  Most hydrogen is bonded to oxygen in the form of water (H 2 O)  Can be produced through the use of nuclear, solar, wind, and other renewable sources  Diversity of sources make hydrogen a viable alternative fuel  Steam methane reforming (CH 4 ) Figure 1: Biodiesel. Source: NAFTC.

7 7 Chemical Properties of Hydrogen  Makes up 75% of the mass of all visible matter  Nontoxic and nonpoisonous  Rarely found alone (H 2 ) – usually bonded to oxygen in water (H 2 O)  Considered an energy carrier  Highly buoyant – lighter than air, rises and diffuses when leaked

8 8 Hydrogen Color  Gas is invisible to the naked eye  When burned, produces a pale blue flame, nearly invisible Hydrogen Smell  Odorless  No odorants are added – this would negatively affect its use in fuel cells Figure 2: Hydrogen gas bubbles. Source: NAFTC.

9 9 Hydrogen Flame Identification  Flames do not produce smoke  Most easily identified by thermal wave  Produces low radiant heat Figure 3: Hydrogen flame. Source: NAFTC.

10 10 Did You Know? Scientists have discovered that some algae and bacteria give off hydrogen. Source: EIA, 2011.

11 11  1820s – Rev. W. Cecil developed hydrogen- fueled engine  1876 – Nicolaus Otto invented four- cylinder engine; 1885 – Gottleib Daimler invented modern ICE  1920s – first testing of the hydrogen ICE  Rudolf Erren used hydrogen ICEs in submarines and land vehicles Basic History of Hydrogen

12 12  General Motors coined the phrase “hydrogen economy” during the fuel crisis of the 1970s  As fuel prices returned to normal, interest in hydrogen vehicles diminished  Rising fuel prices, environmental concerns, and energy security sparked interest again in the twenty-first century

13 13  Development in U.S., Canada, Japan, England, and Germany  First FCEVs became available in 2002  Research to make hydrogen production economically viable  Supply infrastructure still needed Hydrogen Today Figure 4: Fuel cell vehicle. Source: AFDC.

14 14 Flammability  Widest range of flammability (4% to 75%)  Flammability range allows for lean mixtures  Better fuel economy, lower combustion temperature Comparison of Hydrogen to Gasoline  Hydrogen engines perform more efficiently than gasoline engines  Compression ratio = higher than gasoline, lower than diesel

15 15 Figure 5: Fuel source flammability ranges. Source: NAFTC.

16 16 Figure 6: Hydrogen facts and figures. Source: NAFTC.

17 17 Octane  Contains no carbon atoms  Typically assigned an octane rating of 130 Energy Content  Low volumetric energy density  Large storage tank requirements  About 500 times less dense than gasoline Special Note: Hydrogen can also be blended with natural gas to create a transportation fuel that can be used in today’s natural gas vehicles and significantly decrease oxides of nitrogen emissions.

18 18 Hydrogen Storage  May be stored on-board the vehicle in either pressurized gas or liquid form  Cryogenically stored hydrogen  Composite tanks that utilize carbon fiber for added safety  Spills present very little danger

19 19  Energy security  Global climate change  Air quality  Energy independence Why Consider Hydrogen?

20 20 Advantages of Hydrogen  Created from water, can be recycled to produce more hydrogen  Cleanest fuel available when combusted – produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, or hydrocarbon emissions  Leaks/spills will quickly evaporate and do not pose any threats to the environment  Domestic production will allow for energy independence

21 21 Figure 7: Hydrogen compared to conventional gasoline. Source:

22 22  Provides more energy than any conventional fuel  Can be refined from any substance that contains hydrogen  Helps reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil  Betterment of health, environment, economy, and energy security Hydrogen Benefits

23 23  Harmful emissions from the combustion of fuels cause high pollution levels, smog  Combustion of hydrogen produces far fewer emissions than conventional fuels  Aftertreatment systems can help reduce NO x emissions Health Benefits

24 24 Did You Know? About half of the U.S. population lives in areas where air pollution levels are high enough to negatively impact public health. Source: AFDC.

25 25  Cleanest burning fuel available  Combustion does not release carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas  Spills quickly evaporate, form water Environmental Benefits Figure 8: Hydrogen fuel cell bus. Source: NREL.

26 26 Did You Know? Hydrogen-powered fuel cells promise reliability of the U.S. electric power transmission grid by reducing system loads and bottlenecks. Source: DOE, Hydrogen Posture Plan.

27 27  Domestic natural gas deposits can be used to create hydrogen  Domestic production, job creation, tax revenue  Can be used to power stationary applications  Fuel cell industry = $2.5 trillion by 2021 Economic Benefits

28 28 Figure 9: Hydrogen incentives offered by state. Source: NREL.

29 29  Creation of 680,000 jobs by 2035  Offset demand for foreign oil  Research will create “Global Connectivity”  Domestic construction of plants, parts, equipment

30 30  About half of the oil consumed by the U.S. is imported  Hydrogen can be produced domestically  When used in efficient vehicles, hydrogen can help alleviate the need for foreign oil Energy Security Benefits

31 31 Figure 10: Potential electrical sources for hydrogen production. Source: NREL.

32 32 Upon completing this lesson, can you:  Describe what hydrogen is and how to identify it?  Explain the basic history of hydrogen?  Describe how hydrogen may help the environment?  Explain how hydrogen may help stimulate the economy?  Describe what energy security is and how to use hydrogen to attain it?

33 33 1.True or False: Hydrogen may be used in both ICE powered vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles. 2. Who coined the phrase “hydrogen economy” during the fuel crisis of the 1970s? 3.True or False: Natural gas has the highest hydrogen to carbon ratio of any fossil fuel. 4.True or False: Hydrogen is lighter than air. 5. What would happen if liquid hydrogen was spilled? Would this be an environmental concern? Test Your Knowledge

34 34 Lesson 2: Hydrogen Manufacturing, Infrastructure, and Sustainability

35 35 Objectives  Describe where hydrogen can be found  Explain how hydrogen fuel is manufactured and produced  Describe how hydrogen is transported  Explain how hydrogen is distributed  Describe the sustainability of hydrogen – its future and cost efficiency

36 36  Biogas Gasification  Biogas = 60% methane – good source of hydrogen  Biogas = organic waste; it is renewable  Electrolysis  Creating hydrogen from water; “water splitting”  Works similarly to a fuel cell in reverse Renewable Fuel Sources Figure 11: Electrolyzer from fuel cell assembly. Source: NAFTC.

37 37  Natural Gas  Contains over 85% methane (CH 4 )  Excellent source of hydrogen  Coal Gasification  Resulting fuel gas must be converted to hydrogen  Relatively low cost option Non-Renewable Fuel Sources

38 38 Producing Hydrogen from Crude Oil Refining – Naphtha  Hydrogen is produced from naphtha through catalytic reforming  Produces hydrogen and high octane gasoline

39 39 Producing Hydrogen from Natural Gas (Steam Methane Reforming)  Most common and energy- efficient hydrogen production methods  Produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen  Carbon monoxide can be reacted to produce carbon dioxide and more hydrogen Figure 12: Steam reforming reactor. Source: EERE.

40 40 Did You Know? Natural gas reforming using steam accounts for about 95% of the approximately 9 million tons of hydrogen produced in the U.S. annually. Source: AFDC, 2011.

41 41  Must be released from hydrogen- containing compounds  Current methods require about 25% more energy to produce hydrogen than it contains as a fuel (or energy carrier)  About 95% of domestic hydrogen is produced through steam methane reforming Manufacturing and Production

42 42  Shipped as a cryogenic liquid  Generally not transported through pipelines  Methane distribution – on-site reforming Transportation and Distribution Figure 13: Tube trailer used to transport cryogenic hydrogen. Source: EERE.

43 43 Hydrogen Storage  Storage vessels generally approach 10,000 pounds per square inch (psi) of pressure  Cryogenic transportation  Hydrogen gas = occupies about 800 times more volume than hydrogen liquid  Metal hydride Special Note: According to the AFDC, pipelines are the least expensive way to distribute large volumes of hydrogen, which is limited to merely 1200 miles of pipelines in the U.S. – located near large petroleum refineries and chemical plants in Illinois, California, and the Gulf Coast.

44 44 U.S. Pipelines  Natural gas pipeline conversion is not a viable option  Hydrogen is so small, it would permeate pipeline  Required compression  On-site reforming Figure 14: Hydrogen pipeline. Source: EERE.

45 45 Did You Know? The DOE has an online resource available that allows individuals to locate the closest hydrogen fueling station with an interactive map. For more information, visit

46 46 Transporters  Placards/markings for bulk shipments  Assist first responders with fuel identification Figure 15 (left): Hazardous material description identification number UN 1049 placard for gaseous hydrogen. Source: USDOT, PHMSA. Figure 16 (right): Hazardous material description identification number UN 1966 for liquid hydrogen. Source: USDOT, PHMSA.

47 47  One of the main points holding up the hydrogen infrastructure  U.S., Canada, Japan, Germany all have hydrogen demonstration systems  Limited fueling stations, vehicle options  California’s Hydrogen Highway  Toyota, Shell partnership Infrastructure

48 48 U.S. DOE Primary Hydrogen Infrastructure Goals:  Reduce dependence on foreign oil  Promote the use of domestic and sustainable energy resources  Reduce carbon emissions from energy production and consumption  Increase the reliability and efficiency of electricity generation Figure 17: Hydrogen fuel pump. Source: NAFTC.

49 49 Figure 18: Hydrogen fuel cell infrastructure. Source: EERE.

50 50  Hydrogen-specific design codes, equipment standards to ensure safety  Commercialization, seamless transition  Reduced dependence on foreign oil, job growth, infrastructure related industry Figure 19: Hydrogen tanker fueling a hydrogen-fueled truck. Source: NREL.

51 51 Identifying Hydrogen Hazard Placards  Help determine what fuel is being transported  Provides information on flammability, instability, special hazards, health hazards Figure 20 (left): NFPA 704 hazard placard for gaseous hydrogen. Source: NFPA. Figure 21 (right): NFPA 704 hazard placard for liquid hydrogen. Source: NFPA.

52 52  Most abundant element on the universe  Energy required to produce hydrogen for use as a fuel  ‘Recycled’ after use in ICEs, fuel cells  Use of solar, wind, hydro-electricity to ensure sustainability Sustainability

53 53 Cost Efficiency  Challenges associated with creating a suitable fuel source  Energy vs. volumetric energy density of fuel  Cost-effective ways of producing, transporting, and storing  Varying costs by location, storage, and transportation methods used

54 54 Figure 22: Future cost of hydrogen. Source: NREL.

55 55 Figure 23: Future cost estimates for hydrogen fuels. Source: ANL.

56 56 The Future of Hydrogen  Global interest continues to grow  Prototypes from automotive manufacturers  Infrastructure and vehicle developments still required The Future of Fuel Cells  Fuel cell development = next step toward hydrogen economy

57 57 Upon completing this lesson, can you:  Describe where hydrogen can be found?  Explain how hydrogen fuel is manufactured and produced?  Describe how hydrogen is transported?  Explain how hydrogen is distributed?  Describe the sustainability of hydrogen – its future and cost efficiency?

58 58 1.True or False: Electrolysis is the process of producing H 2 from water. 2. As of spring 2011, what is the average cost of one kilogram of hydrogen in the U.S.? 3.True or False: The most energy-efficient way to produce hydrogen gas is known as steam-methane reforming. 4.True or False: One of the biggest challenges in hydrogen use as an alternative fuel is the limited infrastructure. Test Your Knowledge

59 59 Lesson 3: Hydrogen Vehicles

60 60 Objectives  Explain the differences between hydrogen ICE – powered vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell – powered vehicles  Describe the basic components of hydrogen vehicles  Describe the performance of hydrogen vehicles  Explain how to maintain hydrogen vehicles  Describe some hydrogen vehicles

61 61  Hydrogen ICE  Similar to conventional ICEs  Combustion chamber and cooling system modifications  Use of superchargers or turbochargers to supply boost  Comparable power to conventional vehicles Differences Between Hydrogen and Conventional Vehicles Figure 24: Hydrogen internal combustion engine components. Source: NAFTC.

62 62 Fuel Cells  Separates protons and electrons in hydrogen molecule  Extremely efficient – produce only heat and water  Proton Exchange Membrane Figure 25 (left): Fuel cell-powered forklifts. Source: NREL. Figure 26 (right): Cutaway view of a fuel cell. Source: NAFTC.

63 63 Fuel Cell Details  Reverse of electrolysis process  Splits diatomic hydrogen (H 2 ) into hydrogen protons (H+)  Produce water and heat as byproducts Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Differences  Does not need to be plugged in  Generates electricity onboard

64 64 Figure 27: Operation of a PEM fuel cell. Source: DOE.

65 65  ICE Powered Vehicles  Utilize the same main engine components  ICE burns hydrogen as its fuel  Transmission and drivetrain are the same as conventional vehicles  Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles  Hydrogen travels through fuel cell to generate electricity  Electricity is transferred to onboard battery pack  Similar to electric drive vehicles Hydrogen Vehicle Components

66 66  Hydrogen ICEs  Feasible conversion from conventional ICE vehicles  Significant modifications required  Maximum benefit comes from purpose designed and built vehicles  Issues with fuel delivery to the engine Vehicle Modifications and Conversions

67 67 Fuel Cells  Difficult conversion from conventional ICE vehicle  Conversion of electric vehicles  Fuel cell, hydrogen tank, modified battery capacity  Hydrogen research and innovation Figure 28: Fueling a hydrogen vehicle. Source: EERE.

68 68  May return better performance than conventional vehicles  High compression ratio (ICE)  High torque characteristics from electric motor (fuel cell)  Larger storage volume, smaller cargo capacity Hydrogen Vehicle Performance

69 69  Excellent source for combustion  Flame is usually invisible in daylight  Training required to handle fuel Hydrogen Vehicle Safety Figure 29: Hydrogen status lights (left) and hydrogen flame sensor (right). Source: NREL.

70 70 Hydrogen Storage Cylinders  Pressure up to 10,000 psi (or more)  Regular inspections to ensure proper performance is maintained  Potential dangers if cylinder is damaged  Fuel system inspection by trained professional

71 71  Vehicles that utilize ICEs have similar requirements to conventional vehicles  Checks and tune-ups to ensure peak performance is achieved  Vehicles that utilize fuel cells have similar requirements similar to electric drive vehicles  All maintenance should be completed by a trained professional Hydrogen Vehicle Maintenance

72 72  Types of Hydrogen Vehicles  Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine  Used much like any other combustible fuel  Fuel system and compression ratio differ  Dual-Fuel Hydrogen Vehicles  Utilize hydrogen and another fuel source  Most commonly employ hydrogen and natural gas  May be interchangeable or mixed together Hydrogen Vehicles in Use Today

73 73  Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  Combustion engine is replaced with fuel cell  Electricity is produced onboard  Only byproduct is water (and some heat)  Concept Vehicles  Major manufacturers are currently developing prototypes  Hydrogen infrastructure Figure 30: Hydrogen bus engine that utilizes plug-in technology, two fuel cells, and a battery pack. Source: NREL.

74 74 Figure 31: Fuel cell electric bus evaluations across the U.S. Source: NREL.

75 75 Hydrogen Powered ICE Vehicles  ICEs that are optimized to run on hydrogen  Emissions levels are typically near zero  Many manufacturers have produced prototypes that utilize this technology Figure 32 (right): Ford Model U concept. Source: Ford. Figure 33 (left): Hydrogen-fueled Hummer. Source: NAFTC.

76 76 Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles  Most manufacturers have developed concept vehicles  Limited production for demonstration programs  Restricted leases for specified customers Figure 34: Honda FCX Clarity. Source: NAFTC.

77 77 Upon completing this lesson, can you:  Explain the differences between hydrogen ICE – powered vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell – powered vehicles?  Describe the components of hydrogen vehicles?  Describe the performance of hydrogen vehicles?  Explain how to maintain hydrogen vehicles?  Describe some hydrogen vehicles?

78 78 1. Name the two types of hydrogen fueled vehicles 2.True or False: A hydrogen-powered vehicle will produce nearly zero emissions compared to conventional vehicles. 3. Name one example of a hydrogen concept vehicle. Test Your Knowledge

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