Presentation on theme: "Tips for the Instructor:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Tips for the Instructor: This presentation is for the instructor. There are many ways to print out a PowerPoint presentation. Click on print, then look in the ‘Print What’ area and select handouts for participants. It my prove beneficial to select three slides per page which will give the audience room to take notes. For presentation purposes, the presenter can print out Notes Pages which displays one slide per page but will print out all of the Notes in this section. These notes can help guide the presentation and can be modified by each presenter.PowerPoint can also be used by the presenter to use the notes electronically without requiring a physical hard copy for the presentation. Typically you will be presenting from a laptop or desktop that is connected to a projector. In order to use the notes electronically follow these instructions. Press the ‘windows’ and ‘P’ button and select extended view. Open the PowerPoint presentation. Click on the Slide Show tab. Ensure that the box next to ‘Use Presenter View’ has been checked. Then in the upper left hand corner click Play From Beginning. This will present the slides for viewing on the projector screen while allowing the presenter, yourself, to view both the slide and notes section on your desktop/laptop screen. The Notes Page is on the right and has a zoom button to zoom in or out to appropriately size the font for easy reading. On your laptop/desktop window you can use the mouse to click the arrows beneath the currently viewed slide to advance throughout the presentation. To exit this method of presentation, push ESC on the keyboard.
2 Introduction U.S. DOE continues to fund hydrogen fuel cell research Work with both vehicles and fueling stations for the publicAdvanced technologies – increased productionCompletely renewable, not a finite resourceWelcome to the hydrogen workshop…let’s start with some introductory points about hydrogenIn case you were not aware, the…first bulletBut this research is moving from fuel cell and laboratory type research to…second bulletAnd over the course of the last decade and for the foreseeable future there will continue to be advanced in hydrogen production, storage, and onboard use which will lead to increased production and lower capital costsUnlike fossil fuels, hydrogen is…last bullet…however current process for hydrogen production use fossil fuels but as new technologies improve efficiency…hydrogen can then be produced from renewable energy sources
4 Objectives Describe what hydrogen is and how to identify it Explain the basic history of hydrogenDescribe how hydrogen may help the environmentExplain how hydrogen may help stimulate the economyDescribe what energy security is and how to use hydrogen to attain itThese are the main objectives of this section and will be revisited in the Upon Completing Section at the end of each lesson.
5 Definition of Hydrogen Simplest element in the universe – one proton and one electronOccurs naturally as a gasCan be used to create energy through combustion or use in fuel cellsFor those of us not completely familiar with hydrogen we will start by defining what it isHydrogen is the simplest element in the universe…consisting of only one proton and one electronAt ambient conditions hydrogen…second bulletThough it occurs naturally as a gas…it is very rare…we will get to wear its commonly found in a few slides…but pure hydrogen…last bulletCombustion occurs within internal combustion enginesFuel cells will be explained in more detail later
6 Figure 1: Biodiesel. Source: NAFTC. Most hydrogen is bonded to oxygen in the form of water (H2O)Can be produced through the use of nuclear, solar, wind, and other renewable sourcesDiversity of sourcesmake hydrogen a viablealternative fuelSteam methanereforming (CH4)First bullet…and we all know that the world has an abundance of water but this water must be purified and then separated into its fundamental components of oxygen and hydrogenThe above typically focuses on electrolysis for hydrogen productionSteam methane reforming is one of the most popular method because methane has 4 hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom…which is the highest hydrogen to carbon ratio and is discussed later…both methods provide for a diverse source and use of hydrogen as an alternative and renewable fuelFigure shows the basic hydrogen atom…one electron and one protonFigure 1: Biodiesel. Source: NAFTC.
7 Chemical Properties of Hydrogen Makes up 75% of the mass of all visible matterNontoxic and nonpoisonousRarely found alone (H2) – usually bonded to oxygen in water (H2O)Considered an energy carrierHighly buoyant – lighter than air, rises and diffuses when leakedHydrogen is usually bonded in other substances and …first bulletHydrogen is…second bulletIt is…third bullet…water is not the only substance that has hydrogen…all hydrocarbon fuels also have hydrogen atomsSince hydrogen requires energy to produce and does not naturally occur…it can be…fourth bullet…instead of a fuel…this is also common for electricity (energy carrier opposed to fuel)Finally hydrogen is…last bulletBut it should be noted that hydrogen leaks in confined spaces do possess the ability to displace oxygen.
8 Figure 2: Hydrogen gas bubbles. Source: NAFTC. Hydrogen ColorGas is invisible to the naked eyeWhen burned, produces a pale blue flame, nearly invisibleHydrogen SmellOdorlessNo odorants are added – thiswould negatively affect its usein fuel cellsSome more propertiesThe figure shows hydrogen gas bubbles…since it is invisible as a gas lone…even the flame is difficult to identify…next slideFigure 2: Hydrogen gas bubbles. Source: NAFTC.
9 Figure 3: Hydrogen flame. Source: NAFTC. Hydrogen Flame IdentificationFlames do not produce smokeMost easily identified by thermal waveProduces low radiant heatThe flame itself is nearly invisible and produces low radiant heat so this could be dangerous…the broom has been inserted in the flame to produce impurities in the flame which can be seen by yellow flames and smokeFigure 3: Hydrogen flame. Source: NAFTC.
10 Scientists have discovered that some algae and bacteria give off hydrogen. The did you know slides are available in slide master…for the background template and the text and source can be editedSource: EIA, 2011.
11 Basic History of Hydrogen 1820s – Rev. W. Cecil developed hydrogen-fueled engine1876 – Nicolaus Otto invented four-cylinder engine; 1885 – Gottleib Daimler invented modern ICE1920s – first testing of the hydrogen ICERudolf Erren used hydrogen ICEs in submarines and land vehiclesNow we will go over some basic history related to hydrogenHydrogen was first used in an engine in the 1820s…but this engine was not the same as what we know as the conventional internal combustion engines…these types of engines were invented and modernized by Otto and DaimlerThe first testing of hydrogen as a fuel did not occur in these engines until the 1920s…where Erren used hydrogen as a fuel for ICES in submarines and land vehicles
12 General Motors coined the phrase “hydrogen economy” during the fuel crisis of the 1970s As fuel prices returned to normal, interest in hydrogen vehicles diminishedRising fuel prices, environmental concerns, and energy security sparked interest again in the twenty-first centuryIt had remained unused and researched for a while…since conventional fuels like gasoline and diesel made other alternative fuels unattractive, however…first bulletThis provided a spike in alternative fuels including hydrogen…but…second bulletHowever, since the 1990s and with the continually…final bullet
13 Figure 4: Fuel cell vehicle. Source: AFDC. Hydrogen TodayDevelopment in U.S., Canada, Japan, England, and GermanyFirst FCEVs became available in 2002Research to make hydrogen production economically viableSupply infrastructurestill neededBut where is hydrogen todayWell…research and developments have occurred in the slide one countriesWith the first fuel cell electric or FCEVs available in 2002…however these were not commercially available as most hydrogen vehicles are leased and operated for research and as demonstration projectsResearch has brought down the cost of hydrogen production but there is still little to no production and supply infrastructure for the public to fuel hydrogen vehicles…neither ICE or FCEVsFigure 4: Fuel cell vehicle. Source: AFDC.
14 Comparison of Hydrogen to Gasoline FlammabilityWidest range of flammability (4% to 75%)Flammability range allows for lean mixturesBetter fuel economy, lower combustion temperatureComparison of Hydrogen to GasolineHydrogen engines perform more efficiently than gasoline enginesCompression ratio = higher than gasoline, lower than dieselNow…lets return back to some facts and figures about hydrogen…Of all fuels covered in the petroleum reduction technologies curriculum…hydrogen has the…first bulletThis can be beneficial when used as a fuel for internal combustion engines because lean mixtures receive…third bullet…and lower combustion temperatures can help with emissions of oxides of nitrogen which can still occur in ICEs fueled by hydrogenWhen compared to gasoline…an engine designed to run on hydrogen can perform more efficiently because of the higher octane rating of hydrogen…higher octane ratings allow for higher compression ratios which typically improve fuel efficiency…the optimum compression ratio is higher than conventional gasoline engines and lower than some diesel engine compression ratios
15 Figure 5: Fuel source flammability ranges. Source: NAFTC. To better understand the previous details on its flammability we will look at Figure 5 which shows the flammability of some fuels used in internal combustion enginesFigure 5: Fuel source flammability ranges. Source: NAFTC.
16 Figure 6: Hydrogen facts and figures. Source: NAFTC. Hydrogen facts and figures are presented so the readers can compare with other fuels…perhaps the most interesting point is that on a mass basis..hydrogen has the highest heating value of all fuels at nearly 52,000 Btu/lb (British thermal units per pound mass)Figure 6: Hydrogen facts and figures. Source: NAFTC.
17 Octane Energy Content Contains no carbon atoms Typically assigned an octane rating of 130Energy ContentLow volumetric energy densityLarge storage tank requirementsAbout 500 times less dense than gasolineSpecial Note:Hydrogen can also be blended with natural gas to create a transportation fuel that can be used in today’s natural gas vehicles and significantly decrease oxides of nitrogen emissions.This is just expanding one the topics of octane number and energy content…can be presented along with or as stand alone without the previous figureThe octane rating assigned to hydrogen is typically 130…which is much higher than the of conventional gasolineThe special note is about blending hydrogen with other fuels such as natural gas. These methods are possible and have benefits but co-fuel scenarios are not covered in this materialEnergy contentSince it is the lightest gas, it has a low volumetric energy density but still has the highest energy density by massIn order to have larger ranges, large high pressure storage tanks are used…5000 to 10,000 psi
18 Hydrogen StorageMay be stored on-board the vehicle in either pressurized gas or liquid formCryogenically stored hydrogenComposite tanks that utilize carbon fiber for added safetySpills present very little dangerAs just mentioned…it can be stored onboard under high pressures…but it can also be stored as a cryogenic liquid which increases its volumetric energy density but requires significant additional energy for liquefactionMost often it is stored in…third bulletAnd in the case of spills there is little danger has it rapidly evaporates and disperses…however it can still displace oxygen in confined spaces
19 Why Consider Hydrogen? Energy security Global climate change Air qualityEnergy independenceSo why consider hydrogen? Well it can have advantages and benefits in each of the following categories
20 Advantages of Hydrogen Created from water, can be recycled to produce more hydrogenCleanest fuel available when combusted – produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, or hydrocarbon emissionsLeaks/spills will quickly evaporate and do not pose any threats to the environmentDomestic production will allow for energy independenceSpecifically looking at advantages…hydrogen can be…first bulletWhen used in an internal combustion engine it is the…second bulletUnlike other fuel or oil spills…third bullet…but again, leaks could pose a problem for oxygen displacement in confined spacesThe methods used to produce pure hydrogen will allow for additional energy independence
21 The molecules are so small that they can escape through many surfaces and around seals Figure 7: Hydrogen compared to conventional gasoline. Source: fueleconomy.gov.
22 Hydrogen Benefits Provides more energy than any conventional fuel Can be refined from any substance that contains hydrogenHelps reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oilBetterment of health, environment, economy, and energy securityBasic benefits slide…that leads into the specific following sections
23 Health BenefitsHarmful emissions from the combustion of fuels cause high pollution levels, smogCombustion of hydrogen produces far fewer emissions than conventional fuelsAftertreatment systems can help reduce NOx emissionsFirst bullet…most of us know that smog is a byproduct of fuel combustion and can be seen in heavily congested cities…this smog can negatively affect the respiratory system especially in the young or elderlySecond bullet…then these factsNOx emissions still occur when the hydrogen is combusted with airAs of right now, the energy used to produce hydrogen does still have emissions at local power plants and steam reformation plants
24 About half of the U.S. population lives in areas where air pollution levels are high enough to negatively impact public health.The did you know slides are available in slide master…for the background template and the text and source can be editedThis did you know is really general and could be used in any PRT presentation or could be changed to a topic more relevant to presentation locationSource: AFDC.
25 Environmental Benefits Cleanest burning fuel availableCombustion does not release carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gasSpills quickly evaporate, form waterAgain, the environmental benefits are local but can be global if only renewable energy is used for hydrogen productionFigure 8: Hydrogen fuel cell bus. Source: NREL.
26 Hydrogen-powered fuel cells promise reliability of the U. S Hydrogen-powered fuel cells promise reliability of the U.S. electric power transmission grid by reducing system loads and bottlenecks.Source: DOE, Hydrogen Posture Plan.
27 Economic BenefitsDomestic natural gas deposits can be used to create hydrogenDomestic production, job creation, tax revenueCan be used to power stationary applicationsFuel cell industry = $2.5 trillion by 2021And now onto the economic benefits of hydrogen useAbout 95% of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. is from the steam methane reformation process which can use domestic natural gasThis will allow for…second bulletIn addition to transportation…grown can occur in other sectors since hydrogen…third bulletAnd it is estimated that the fuel cell industry will grow to a $2.5 trillion dollar business by 2021
28 Figure 9: Hydrogen incentives offered by state. Source: NREL. There are still some incentives to help the growth of the hydrogen industry as sown by this map from the national renewable energy laboratory.Figure 9: Hydrogen incentives offered by state. Source: NREL.
29 Offset demand for foreign oil Creation of 680,000 jobs by 2035Offset demand for foreign oilResearch will create “Global Connectivity”Domestic construction of plants, parts, equipmentSome additional facts on its economic benefits include…first and second bulletThe research has already partnered international relationships in the fuel cell arena and will continue to do so while also supporting…last bullet
30 Energy Security Benefits About half of the oil consumed by the U.S. is importedHydrogen can be produced domesticallyWhen used in efficient vehicles, hydrogen can help alleviate the need for foreign oilAnd now focusing on the energy security benefits of using hydrogen we go back to the fact that U.S. imports about half of its crude oil…of which about 2/3 is used in the transportation sectorHydrogen can be produced domestically which when combined with advanced technology vehicles can help to alleviate the need for foreign oil
31 The best benefits occur when hydrogen is generated using renewable electricity and the electrolysis process is usedFigure 10: Potential electrical sources for hydrogen production. Source: NREL.
32 Upon completing this lesson, can you: Describe what hydrogen is and how to identify it?Explain the basic history of hydrogen?Describe how hydrogen may help the environment?Explain how hydrogen may help stimulate the economy?Describe what energy security is and how to use hydrogen to attain it?These are the objectives mentioned before, hopefully the reader can find all of the answers either on their own in the text or they have been discussed in this presentation, again, these can be catered to audience, but it is always recommended to tell them what you are going to tell them, tell them, and then tell them what you told them.
33 Test Your KnowledgeTrue or False: Hydrogen may be used in both ICE powered vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles.Who coined the phrase “hydrogen economy” during the fuel crisis of the 1970s?True or False: Natural gas has the highest hydrogen to carbon ratio of any fossil fuel.True or False: Hydrogen is lighter than air.What would happen if liquid hydrogen was spilled? Would this be an environmental concern?During the presentation, the location of information that may help answer the test your knowledge has been hyperlinked to a hidden box next to each number. When the pointer slides over the number it will give you the option to click the hyperlink which will take you to the appropriate slide. To return, right click your mouse and go to Last Viewed to the test your knowledge section. It should also be noted that information in the workbook has also been marked in the margins with PowerPoint slide numbers. More information about each slide and question can be found in the text.TrueGeneral MotorsIt would rapidly heat up, become a gas, and rise into the atmosphere; no harm would take place to the environment
34 Lesson 2: Hydrogen Manufacturing, Infrastructure, and Sustainability Lesson 2 typically focuses on these areas which may only be suitable to certain audiences…
35 Objectives Describe where hydrogen can be found Explain how hydrogen fuel is manufactured and producedDescribe how hydrogen is transportedExplain how hydrogen is distributedDescribe the sustainability of hydrogen – its future and cost efficiencyOutlining the topics to cover with this lesson 2 material.
36 Renewable Fuel Sources Biogas GasificationBiogas = 60% methane – good source of hydrogenBiogas = organic waste; it is renewableElectrolysisCreating hydrogen from water; “water splitting”Works similarly to a fuel cell in reverseThere are multiple ways to produce hydrogen…of these…some can be renewable processes that limit overall pollution and greenhouse gas emissionsNatural gas can be used along with steam methane reforming but natural gas is a fossil fuel…an area of research is the use of biogases which can also be a good source of hydrogenThe gases are produced as a part of natural organic decay so using these gases does not add negative effects to the atmosphereElectrolysis is the process of creating hydrogen from water…also known as water splitting…about half of U.S. electricity is produced from the combustion of coal…which still produced emissions however when combined with solar, wind and other renewable energy process the production of hydrogen can be greenWater splitting or hydrolysis works much the same as a fuel cell…but in reverseFigure 11: Electrolyzer from fuel cell assembly. Source: NAFTC.
37 Non-Renewable Fuel Sources Natural GasContains over 85% methane (CH4)Excellent source of hydrogenCoal GasificationResulting fuel gas must be converted to hydrogenRelatively low cost optionHydrogen can also be produced from non-renewable fuel sources which can help diversify the fuel consumption landscapeThe most common source is natural gas…which is usually over 85% methane or CH4 which is an excellent source of hydrogenGoal gasification can turn coal into hydrocarbon gases that must then be processed to form hydrogen gas…not an efficient or popular option
38 Producing Hydrogen from Crude Oil Refining – Naphtha Hydrogen is produced from naphtha through catalytic reformingProduces hydrogen and high octane gasolineMost common method is steam methane reforming, second is electrolysis, it can also be produced from crude oil…but again this process is much more complex than the two most common methods
39 Figure 12: Steam reforming reactor. Source: EERE. Producing Hydrogen from Natural Gas(Steam Methane Reforming)Most common and energy-efficient hydrogenproduction methodsProduces carbon monoxideand hydrogenCarbon monoxide can bereacted to produce carbondioxide and more hydrogenThis CO2 should be accounted for in the whole system analysis of emissions from hydrogen vehiclesFigure 12: Steam reforming reactor. Source: EERE.
40 Natural gas reforming using steam accounts for about 95% of the approximately 9 million tons of hydrogen produced in the U.S. annually.Again, Did you knows are fixed in print, but these boxes can be edited to update or provide additional tidbits of information in order to keep the audience engaged.Source: AFDC, 2011.
41 Manufacturing and Production Must be released from hydrogen-containing compoundsCurrent methods require about 25% more energy to produce hydrogen than it contains as a fuel (or energy carrier)About 95% of domestic hydrogen is produced through steam methane reformingSo when looking at the big picture…the current hurdle is that current methods require about 25% more energy to produce hydrogen than it contains as a fuel or energy carrier…therefore it typically consumes more fuel and produces emissions elsewhere before it can be used…the green solution is to switch from steam methane reformation to electrolysis and then use renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy to power electrolyzers
42 Transportation and Distribution Shipped as a cryogenic liquidGenerally not transported through pipelinesMethane distribution – on-site reformingCurrently hydrogen is typically shipped as a cryogenic liquid and is not generally transported through pipelines based on leakage problemsOne key option for sooner…rather than later hydrogen production is to utilize the nationwide network of natural gas lines to transport natural gas to onsite steam methane reformation plants for onsite production of hydrogenFigure 13: Tube trailer used to transport cryogenic hydrogen. Source: EERE.
43 Hydrogen StorageStorage vessels generally approach 10,000 pounds per square inch (psi) of pressureCryogenic transportationHydrogen gas = occupies about 800 times more volume than hydrogen liquidMetal hydrideDemonstration vehicles often use pressurized storage systems of up to 5,000 psi or 350 bar but other..first bulletAs mentioned before…cryogenic transportation is one options…storage as a liquid increases its volumetric energy density by about 800 times…it can also be stored in a metal hydride form but is not common and some of these methods continue to be researched.Limited transport has been accomplished in California…which has the most hydrogen fuel stations and useSpecial Note:According to the AFDC, pipelines are the least expensive way to distribute large volumes of hydrogen, which is limited to merely 1200 miles of pipelines in the U.S. – located near large petroleum refineries and chemical plants in Illinois, California, and the Gulf Coast.
44 Figure 14: Hydrogen pipeline. Source: EERE. U.S. PipelinesNatural gas pipeline conversion is not a viable optionHydrogen is so small, itwould permeate pipelineRequired compressionOn-site reformingOn-site reforming or on-site electrolysis are the most viable optionsSome pipe lines do exist, special note, previous slideFigure 14: Hydrogen pipeline. Source: EERE.
45 The DOE has an online resource available that allows individuals to locate the closest hydrogen fueling station with an interactive map. For more information, visitAgain, Did you knows are fixed in print, but these boxes can be edited to update or provide additional tidbits of information in order to keep the audience engaged.
46 Transporters Placards/markings for bulk shipments Assist first responders with fuel identificationAs with all bulk shipments of fuels… the department of transportation requires placards to assist in fuel identification especially for first respondersThe DOT placards are shown for gaseous hydrogen on the left and liquid hydrogen on the rightFigure 15 (left): Hazardous material description identification number UN 1049 placard for gaseous hydrogen. Source: USDOT, PHMSA. Figure 16 (right): Hazardous material description identification number UN 1966 for liquid hydrogen. Source: USDOT, PHMSA.
47 InfrastructureOne of the main points holding up the hydrogen infrastructureU.S., Canada, Japan, Germany all have hydrogen demonstration systemsLimited fueling stations, vehicle optionsCalifornia’s Hydrogen HighwayToyota, Shell partnershipThere is not currently a nationwide infrastructure in the U.S. or any major country which leads to limited fueling stations and vehicle options…The most prominent area of infrastructure has been in California where there are multiple stations available…some even provide hydrogen free of chargeOther partnerships such as those between Toyota and Shell and others with cities and universities are the main choices for infrastructure growth outside of private onsite fueling stations
48 Figure 17: Hydrogen fuel pump. Source: NAFTC. U.S. DOE Primary Hydrogen InfrastructureGoals:Reduce dependence onforeign oilPromote the use ofdomestic and sustainableenergy resourcesReduce carbon emissionsfrom energy productionand consumptionIncrease the reliability andefficiency of electricitygenerationAs with many alternative fuels…the united states department of energy has played and continues to play a pivotal role in the development and use of hydrogen…there goals have been…all four bulletsFigure 17: Hydrogen fuel pump. Source: NAFTC.
49 Figure 18: Hydrogen fuel cell infrastructure. Source: EERE. Up until this point of the presentation we have only mentioned fuel cells…this slide is included to show how hydrogen and fuel cells can be a pivotal part of various energy sectors which could all benefit from additional infrastructure growthFigure 18: Hydrogen fuel cell infrastructure. Source: EERE.
50 Hydrogen-specific design codes, equipment standards to ensure safety Commercialization, seamless transitionReduced dependence on foreign oil, job growth, infrastructure related industryAs hydrogen vehicles continue to be research and produced…there must be hydrogen-specific design codes and equipment standards as have been developed for all other fueling systemsCommercialization of these vehicles must occur in order to better help in a seamless transitionAnd once the vehicles and infrastructure are available…their operation reduce dependence on foreign oil, allow for domestic job growth in the U.S.Figure 19: Hydrogen tanker fueling a hydrogen-fueled truck. Source: NREL.
51 Identifying Hydrogen Hazard Placards Help determine what fuel is being transportedProvides information on flammability, instability, special hazards, health hazardsThe NFPA already had hydrogen specific placards that are used to help everyone, especially first responders identify what is being stored on location at fuel sites. The placard for gaseous hydrogen is shown on the left and the placard for liquid hydrogen is shown on the right.Figure 20 (left): NFPA 704 hazard placard for gaseous hydrogen. Source: NFPA. Figure 21 (right): NFPA 704 hazard placard for liquid hydrogen. Source: NFPA.
52 Sustainability Most abundant element on the universe Energy required to produce hydrogen for use as a fuel‘Recycled’ after use in ICEs, fuel cellsUse of solar, wind, hydro-electricity to ensure sustainabilityWhen looking at the sustainability of hydrogen there is great potential as it is…first bulletBut currently it takes more energy to produce hydrogen than it can return as a transportation fuel…however once the hydrogen is used in internal combustion engines or fuel cells…it is recycled as waterIn the future this water can be again separated into hydrogen and oxygen through the use of solar, wind, and hydro-electricity to ensure sustainability
53 Cost EfficiencyChallenges associated with creating a suitable fuel sourceEnergy vs. volumetric energy density of fuelCost-effective ways of producing, transporting, and storingVarying costs by location, storage, and transportation methods usedWhen looking at cost efficiency…there are still challenges associated with creating pure hydrogen…as the demand increases and process become more efficient…hydrogen fuel costs will decreaseIt is also important to look at…bullet two. Currently most hydrogen vehicles use pressurized hydrogen at about 5000 psi…even with this high of pressure there are still trade offs because of tank size and placementAlso there are no cost effective ways of producing, transporting, and storing hydrogen when compared to the common conventional fuels but onsite production may the most cost efficient and generally effective method for local hydrogen production
54 Figure 22: Future cost of hydrogen. Source: NREL. As with most systems or vehicles, as production and use increases the price of fuel cells will decrease. As fuel cells advance and cost decreases…more manufacturers will offer them as optionsFigure 22: Future cost of hydrogen. Source: NREL.
55 Figure 23: Future cost estimates for hydrogen fuels. Source: ANL. The forecasted price of hydrogen based on gasoline gallon equivalents is currently projected to remain steady at just under $4/gallon which is comparable to current fuel prices. At the time this was written…a kilogram or gasoline gallon equivalent of hydrogen was about $3.50 for a nationwide average. The source of Figure 23 ANL Argonne National LabsFigure 23: Future cost estimates for hydrogen fuels. Source: ANL.
56 The Future of Fuel Cells The Future of HydrogenGlobal interest continues to growPrototypes from automotive manufacturersInfrastructure and vehicle developments still requiredThe Future of Fuel CellsFuel cell development = next step toward hydrogen economyAt this point the future of hydrogen is centered around fuel cell advancements
57 Upon completing this lesson, can you: Describe where hydrogen can be found?Explain how hydrogen fuel is manufactured and produced?Describe how hydrogen is transported?Explain how hydrogen is distributed?Describe the sustainability of hydrogen – its future and cost efficiency?Telling the audience what you told them.
58 Test Your KnowledgeTrue or False: Electrolysis is the process of producing H2 from water.As of spring 2011, what is the average cost of one kilogram of hydrogen in the U.S.?True or False: The most energy-efficient way to produce hydrogen gas is known as steam-methane reforming.True or False: One of the biggest challenges in hydrogen use as an alternative fuel is the limited infrastructure.During the presentation, the location of information that may help answer the test your knowledge has been hyperlinked to a hidden box next to each number. When the pointer slides over the number it will give you the option to click the hyperlink which will take you to the appropriate slide. To return, right click your mouse and go to Last Viewed to the test your knowledge section. It should also be noted that information in the workbook has also been marked in the margins with PowerPoint slide numbers. More information about each slide and question can be found in the text.True$3.50
59 Lesson 3: Hydrogen Vehicles The third lesson focuses on the fuel or technology or strategy’s actual use.
60 ObjectivesExplain the differences between hydrogen ICE – powered vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell – powered vehiclesDescribe the basic components of hydrogen vehiclesDescribe the performance of hydrogen vehiclesExplain how to maintain hydrogen vehiclesDescribe some hydrogen vehicles
61 Differences Between Hydrogen and Conventional Vehicles Hydrogen ICESimilar to conventional ICEsCombustion chamber andcooling system modificationsUse of superchargers orturbochargers to supply boostComparable power toconventional vehiclesWell start of this section by looking at the differences between hydrogen and conventional vehiclesWe will first look at hydrogen vehicles that use the hydrogen as a fuel with an internal combustion engines…these are…first bulletHowever the…second bullet…are done in order to prevent detonation before spark or within the intake which had been a problem in the pastSpecifically designed…dedicated engines will use superchargers or turbochargers to supply boost…this boost mean that more are will be forced into the engineThis will allow an engine to operate on lean combustion which is more fuel efficient, dedicated engines can also focus on hydrogen’sHigh ‘octane’ rating means that specifically designed engines can use higher compression ratios for higher engine efficiencyFigure 24: Hydrogen internal combustion engine components. Source: NAFTC.
62 Fuel Cells Separates protons and electrons in hydrogen molecule Extremely efficient – produce only heat and waterProton Exchange MembraneThere are some similarities when comparing fuel cell electric vehicles to conventional vehicles…but even more similarities arise when a fuel cell electric vehicle is compared with a hybrid electric vehicle…only the engine has been replaced with a fuel cellThe function of the fuel cell is that…first bullet and uses energy to power the wheels or charge onboard battersLast bullet is the most common type of fuel cell, known as PEMs, others do existThe images show hydrogen fuel cell powered forklifts (left) and a fuel cell assemble (right)Figure 25 (left): Fuel cell-powered forklifts. Source: NREL. Figure 26 (right): Cutaway view of a fuel cell. Source: NAFTC.
63 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Differences Fuel Cell DetailsReverse of electrolysis processSplits diatomic hydrogen (H2) into hydrogen protons (H+)Produce water and heat as byproductsHydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle DifferencesDoes not need to be plugged inGenerates electricity onboardFor those of you that are new to fuel cells it may be beneficial to think of the process as the reverse of the electrolysis (water splitting) processHeat and a catalyst material split diatomic hydrogen H2 into two hydrogen protonsThe protons can pass through the PEM but the electrons travel through a circuit which generates electricityThe hydrogen protons, electrons combine with oxygen on the opposite side of the PEM to form water along with some heatMay be plugged in to increase range before fuel cell operation but in both cases electricity is produced on board within the fuel cell (actually it’s a fuel cell stack…multiple fuel cells connected together) the energy is not stored in a fuel cell…the energy is stored as hydrogen in a tank…the fuel cell converts the energy of the hydrogen into electricity which can then power the vehicle
64 Figure 27: Operation of a PEM fuel cell. Source: DOE. This DOE image walks through the details of the previous slide, both could be used to help the audience visualize how fuel cells workFigure 27: Operation of a PEM fuel cell. Source: DOE.
65 Hydrogen Vehicle Components ICE Powered VehiclesUtilize the same main engine componentsICE burns hydrogen as its fuelTransmission and drivetrain are the same as conventional vehiclesFuel Cell Electric VehiclesHydrogen travels through fuel cell to generate electricityElectricity is transferred to onboard battery packSimilar to electric drive vehiclesThe basic components of vehicle that combusts hydrogen in an ICE are much the same as conventional gasoline vehicles…engine modifications to ensure proper combustion are included for drivability leaving the main difference as being the need for a high pressure fuel storage systemThe components of a fuel cell electric vehicle of FCEV are different because they do not contain engines…instead the engine has been replaced with a fuel cell stack (multiple fuel cells together) to act as the source of power generation…the power can directly power motors to propel the vehicle or be used in conjunction with batteries to improve efficiency
66 Vehicle Modifications and Conversions Hydrogen ICEsFeasible conversion from conventional ICE vehiclesSignificant modifications requiredMaximum benefit comes from purpose designed and built vehiclesIssues with fuel delivery to the engineSome may be interested if they can convert there current spark ignited gasoline engine to run on hydrogen…well the answer is yes…but not many conversions are available even though the process is feasible and has been done for yearsIn fact…bullet twoAnd a dedicated hydrogen vehicle with a purpose built engine would be the most efficient option…but again…conversion systems are available but some have…last bulletFuel delivery system modifications may be significant
67 Figure 28: Fueling a hydrogen vehicle. Source: EERE. Fuel CellsDifficult conversion from conventional ICE vehicleConversion of electric vehiclesFuel cell, hydrogen tank, modified battery capacityHydrogen research andinnovationWhile conversions of conventional vehicles is feasible to use hydrogen for on board combustion…conversion of the same vehicle to use a fuel cell would be more difficult…however battery electric vehicles could be modified to use a fuel cell for the onboard generation of electricity…Fuel cells have been proven but the costs are high but with continued research and innovation…fuel cell vehicles may be a limited production option within the next 5-10 yearsFigure 28: Fueling a hydrogen vehicle. Source: EERE.
68 Hydrogen Vehicle Performance May return better performance than conventional vehiclesHigh compression ratio (ICE)High torque characteristics from electric motor (fuel cell)Larger storage volume, smaller cargo capacityWhen a vehicle has been properly modified or purpose built…the hydrogen powered vehicle…first bulletThese vehicles could use high compression ratios for performance and efficiencyWhen dealing with fuel cells…hydrogen can produce electricity to power electric motors which provide large amounts of torque for rapid accelerationsHowever…in both cases…vehicles may suffer from the required space for onboard fuel storage which would decrease cargo capacity…which is often rated as a performance issue for light-duty consumers and some commercial vehicles
69 Hydrogen Vehicle Safety Excellent source for combustionFlame is usually invisible in daylightTraining required to handle fuelFigure 29: Hydrogen status lights (left) and hydrogen flame sensor (right) . Source: NREL.The benefits of hydrogen being an excellent source for combustion is also a possible safety hazardOdorants are not added to hydrogen as is done with compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas…for this reason hydrogen monitors should be installed at facilitiesAnd remember from earlier that hydrogen flames are nearly invisible…so additional safety precautions should be taken if there is even the thought that a leak could be on fireAnd remember even though hydrogen diffuses rapidly…leaks may displace oxygen in confined spacesMany of these safety concerns can be minimized with the proper equipment and training
70 Hydrogen Storage Cylinders Pressure up to 10,000 psi (or more)Regular inspections to ensure proper performance is maintainedPotential dangers if cylinder is damagedFuel system inspection by trained professionalCurrently hydrogen tanks on vehicles and conversion operate at around 5000 psi but new systems could easily have pressures that reach 10,000 psi to increase vehicle rangeThese systems have tanks that should be regularly inspected especially if the vehicle has been in an accident regardless of tank damage…fuel inspection and codes are being developed so that as the vehicles become available there are standard operating procedures in place to ensure their safe operation
71 Hydrogen Vehicle Maintenance Vehicles that utilize ICEs have similar requirements to conventional vehiclesChecks and tune-ups to ensure peak performance is achievedVehicles that utilize fuel cells have similar requirements similar to electric drive vehiclesAll maintenance should be completed by a trained professionalLike any conventionally fueled or alternatively fueled vehicles…proper care and maintenance is key for ensuring efficient operation of a vehicleHigh voltage and high pressure will be common place on hydrogen vehicles and…last bullet
72 Hydrogen Vehicles in Use Today Types of Hydrogen VehiclesHydrogen Internal Combustion EngineUsed much like any other combustible fuelFuel system and compression ratio differDual-Fuel Hydrogen VehiclesUtilize hydrogen and another fuel sourceMost commonly employ hydrogen and natural gasMay be interchangeable or mixed togetherBut are there even hydrogen vehicles in use today? Well the answer is actually yesAs mentioned before some vehicles with internal combustion engines have been modified to use hydrogen…but none are sold by OEMsAnother category are dual-fuel hydrogen vehicles which were mentioned before and are a possibility but these too are not popular
73 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Combustion engine is replaced with fuel cellElectricity is produced onboardOnly byproduct is water (and some heat)Concept VehiclesMajor manufacturersare currentlydeveloping prototypesHydrogeninfrastructureThe category of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles has probably been given the most attention…and this type is usually comprised of concept vehicles from manufacturers or are sold or leased in limited quantities as part of demonstration projects…These vehicles will again require infrastructure growth before becoming mainstreamFigure 30: Hydrogen bus engine that utilizes plug-in technology, two fuel cells, and a battery pack. Source: NREL.
74 Various multi year fuel cell electric bus demonstrations Figure 31: Fuel cell electric bus evaluations across the U.S. Source: NREL.But to prove that there are hydrogen vehicles out there we will look at some DOE supported bus evaluationsVarious multi year fuel cell electric bus demonstrations
75 Hydrogen Powered ICE Vehicles ICEs that are optimized to run on hydrogenEmissions levels are typically near zeroMany manufacturers have produced prototypes that utilize this technologyFigure 32 (right): Ford Model U concept. Source: Ford. Figure 33 (left): Hydrogen-fueled Hummer. Source: NAFTC.And also show some concept cars such as the Ford Model U and a hydrogen powered hummer…both which use…first bulletAs covered earlier these vehicles produce nearly no tailpipe emissions…but these are still only prototype and concept vehicles because of the lack of demand and infrastructure
76 Figure 34: Honda FCX Clarity. Source: NAFTC. Light-Duty Fuel Cell VehiclesMost manufacturers have developed concept vehiclesLimited production for demonstration programsRestricted leases for specified customersFigure 34: Honda FCX Clarity. Source: NAFTC.Little to know fueling and/or service structureAgain hitting home the points on fuel cell electric vehicles…however companies like Honda have produced limited numbers of FCEVs and have announced that they will be available within the coming years for additional customer leases…but again…mainly in the California area where there is some hydrogen infrastructure.
77 Upon completing this lesson, can you: Explain the differences between hydrogen ICE – powered vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell – powered vehicles?Describe the components of hydrogen vehicles?Describe the performance of hydrogen vehicles?Explain how to maintain hydrogen vehicles?Describe some hydrogen vehicles?Make sure that these objectives have been covered when completing the lesson
78 Test Your Knowledge Name the two types of hydrogen fueled vehicles True or False: A hydrogen-powered vehicle will produce nearly zero emissions compared to conventional vehicles.Name one example of a hydrogen concept vehicle.During the presentation, the location of information that may help answer the test your knowledge has been hyperlinked to a hidden box next to each number. When the pointer slides over the number it will give you the option to click the hyperlink which will take you to the appropriate slide. To return, right click your mouse and go to Last Viewed to the test your knowledge section. It should also be noted that information in the workbook has also been marked in the margins with PowerPoint slide numbers. More information about each slide and question can be found in the text.ICE and fuel cellTrueThe Ford Model U