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Harnessing the Power of Hydrogen

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Presentation on theme: "Harnessing the Power of Hydrogen"— Presentation transcript:

1 Harnessing the Power of Hydrogen

2 Objectives What is hydrogen power? How does it work?
What are hydrogen power’s goals? What are the problems presented by hydrogen power? What are the benefits of hydrogen power? How sustainable and reliable is hydrogen? Overall effectiveness of hydrogen

3 Hydrogen Power: What is it?
H is one of most common chemicals on earth and can be extracted from multiple sources Hydrogen is not a fuel…it is a way of storing and transporting energy Similar to a battery First was used for space crafts In order to use hydrogen energy, it must first be made Extracting hydrogen from fossil fuels or using electricity to split water

4 Hydrogen Power: How it works
Simply works through the exchange of H+ ions between the catalysts from the stored hyrdogen The electrons cannot pass and create an electric flow This electric flow creates energy

5 Ideal Goal for Hydrogen
Use renewable energy sources as means to generate hydrogen power If fossil fuels are still used for hydrogen production, use method to get rid of carbon dioxide All cars be run on hydrogen Create hydrogen power infrastructure Produce large amounts of hydrogen to pump into infrastructure

6 Hydrogen Economy If hydrogen economy actually came into place, there would be a way to distribute hydrogen power anywhere Infrastructure (piping) One large production/distribution center Infrastructure Distribute to homes/work places

7 Evidence Supporting Hydrogen Power
Hydrogen can produce up to 3x as much energy as natural gas 9 million metric tons hydrogen / year Enough to power million cars or 5-8 million homes While in use, hydrogen emits no carbon dioxide, only in production Can be generated from water as waste and solar energy: both inexhaustible energies Drivers using it can save money through hydrogen fuel over a long period of time

8 Evidence Supporting Hydrogen Power
Water is MAIN byproduct Weighs less than hydrocarbons Has a greater output than hydrocarbons Burns faster and at a much lower temperature than hydrocarbons Large and growing industry 2004: 50 million metric tons were produced globally Growing by 10% annually Low carbon hydrogen power is possible…

9 Evidence Opposing Hydrogen Power
Requires an input of energy just to create hydrogen Hydrogen is not readily available Hydrogen is normally a gas hard to handle More dangerous than other substances Needs to be checked periodically Hydrogen has been called the “least efficient and most expensive possible replacement for gasoline (petrol) in terms of reducing greenhouse gases” Very costly

10 Evidence Opposing Hydrogen Power
Extreme Cost Right now only 4% of production is being used from electrolysis Rest is from fossil fuels Hydrogen uses fossil fuels in production and in return, creates greenhouse gases Experts agree that hydrogen can be unpredictable Example: Hindenburg

11 Evidence Opposing Hydrogen Power
Hard to store Hydrogen can react with metals it’s stored in and cause leaks Need to be able to produce at least ten times more in order for hydrogen powered vehicles to be normal AND this needs to be done in an efficient and environmentally friendly way which is the problem Morita, an analyst says that hydrogen is “not suitable for onboard storage”

12 Hydrogen Run Vehicles Very clean and efficient
Can become cost efficient over a long period of time In hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles, the hydrogen is combusted in same way as traditional engines In fuel cell conversion engines, the hydrogen is reacted with water to form electricity, using that to be power an electric traction motor

13 Environmental Concerns
Fossil fuel reforming (a way of hydrogen production) leads to the increase of carbon dioxide Electrolysis also leads to increase of carbon dioxide Possibility of formation of free radicals in stratosphere Hydrogen gas leaks out slowly (significant amounts could be harmful) Free radicals would lead to ozone depletion “ Using dirty energy to make clean energy doesn’t solve the problem-it just moves it around” Improper burning of hydrogen produces highly polluting nitrous oxides

14 Safety Concerns Hydrogen is not simply flammable, it creates explosions Hydrogen has the highest explosives with air other than acetylene Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames burn in UV rays that are nearly invisible to humans Hydrogen is odorless Detected through flame detector

15 Social Laws/Political Problems
Many hydrogen codes and standards for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, stationary fuel cell applications and portable fuel cell applications In order to commercialize hydrogen power, advocates want to change laws to make it easier to distribute to a wide area Trying to change building codes and quality control processes to save money through the federal and state government

16 Any Laws Preventing Hydrogen Power?
Standard for the Installation of stationary fuel cell power systems From National Fire Protection Association Many laws concerning safety of hydrogen World’s First Higher Educational Programme in Hydrogen safety European Commission trying to educate every day people Trying to make hydrogen power safer by educating Hard to use hydrogen in areas that are closed Example: tunnels Extremely explosive and dangerous Certain laws explain where hydrogen power can/cannot be used

17 Enhanced in Developed Areas Development in New Areas
Hydrogen Production Enhanced in Developed Areas Development in New Areas Possible but expensive In order to reduce carbon emissions, plants are being produced in areas that can feed renewable energies into the plants Need hydrogen plant in addition to plant for energy source Largely produced in California, Louisiana, and Texas Globally Iceland and China are large producers Continue to produce in areas that have developed renewable resources

18 U.S. Hydrogen Production

19 Japan's Hydrogen Community
Iceland’s Geothermal

20 Technical Impediments in Development and Deployment
Production, Storage, and Delivery Uses a great deal of energy to isolate hydrogen from natural compounds Energy also used to package hydrogen gas Loses energy when converting to usable energy Only about 25% of energy is left for use after production

21 Possibilities to Overcome Impediments
Figure out better ways to produce Improving existing processes such as steam methane production, multi-fuel gasification, and electrolysis New ways to store hydrogen power None of current storage devices satisfy current needs New ways to deliver hydrogen power If a complete infrastructure comes into play, the distribution will be overcome

22 Sustainability of Hydrogen Power
Hydrogen is sustainable As long as energy is able to be produced from hydrogen, the hydrogen is very near an inexhaustible source Electrolysis of water But this requires an input of energy Most commonly energy comes from fossil fuels Sometimes solar, geothermal, wind, biomass, nuclear (very small percentage) Fossil fuels are the cheapest ($9.50 vs $1 per gallons of gasoline equivalent) Until completely weaned off of fossil fuels, hydrogen power will always have some dependence upon fossil fuels, therefore always nearing depletion Hydrogen has the ability to be truly sustainable Not quite there

23 Truth or Consequences? Construction of world’s first “emission-free” hydrogen power plant Will use wind and solar energy to split water apart into hydrogen and oxygen BUT permitting process is not quite complete and building has yet to begin

24 Conclusion Hydrogen power has many benefits but appears to have too many loose ends to be a great answer to current energy demands High cost No real loss of greenhouse gases Unpredictable and highly explosive Benefits don’t outweigh the disadvantages Right now no energy storage scheme or infrastructure in place Hydrogen has ability to be a great source of energy in the future but there are multiple points that need to be fixed in order to maximize use and efficiency and overall reduce the hazards related to it

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