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2 At the threshold of a new era – era of hydrogen energy (hydrogen economy) Further rapid development of modern power generation and transport industries will inevitably bring our civilization to environmental and energy crisis of unprecedented scale. Depletion of existing fossil fuel reserves urges the industrial countries to put forth maximum efforts to find alternative renewable sources of clean energy. Past hopes for “the peaceful atom” turned out to be not as promising as they seemed, and the prospects of thermonuclear energy taming and its usage in the nearest future are still unclear. Hydrogen, being practically inexhaustible source of energy, may save our world. hydrogen economy

3 Research in the field of hydrogen energy separated as a direction of scientific and technological progress more than 30 years ago. Many countries regard hydrogen technologies as a priority in their social and economic development, hence the growing support from governments and private business sector. Researchers and engineers are looking for ways to introduce hydrogen fuel and electrochemical generators on the basis of Fuel Cells in the most power-consuming industries including transport vehicles. he use of hydrogen as a principal source of power will create an absolutely new hydrogen economy. The results of this scientific and technological breakthrough can be compared to such revolutionary changes in the development of our civilization as those provided by electric power, internal combustion engine, chemistry and oil chemistry, information technologies and telecommunications. About 100 Western companies, industrial groups, university laboratories, state institutions and research associations conduct studies in different areas of hydrogen energy generation and application. hydrogen economy

4 All industrially advanced countries have adopted national programs for the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cells. They are financed by governments of these countries and by private business. The amount of annual investments in FC technologies and FC-based power plants exceeds $500 mln. The most committed countries are the U.S.A., Cana and Japan, where dynamic research and development are accompanied with actions focusing on the commercialization of hydrogen technology. A large number of FC-based power plants with capacities from several Watts to MegaWatts have been put into operation lately, and their performance clearly demonstrates that they can easily compete with conventional plants that exploit the traditional process of fossil fuel combustion. Further advancement in the area of FC-based power plants development will enable us to solve two major tasks: to provide the mankind with renewable clean energy resources, and to replace or to improve existing systems of power supply (electricity and heat) to various objects, from mobile telephones, computers and automobiles to residential houses, large industrial plants and cities in general. hydrogen economy

5 TOTAL CAPACITY OF EXISTING FC-BASED STATIONARY POWER PLANTS FC Type U.S.A.JapanEuropeTotal% PEMFC4502506701 3705 PAFC13 20010 0001 000 24 200 75 MCFC1 2501 0602 8605 17016 SOFC5001585013654 Total15 40011 3255 38032 105100 %483517100 hydrogen economy

6 GLOBAL FC MARKET 19952000 2005 % annual growth 2000/1995 % annual growth 2005/2000 Global FC market1 2052 4408 50015,228,4 U.S.A.3557202 50015,228,3 Canada and Mexico 4515057527,230,8 Western Europe3106002 30014,130,8 Japan3606751 95013,423,6 Other Asia and Pacific 7519575021,1 30,9 Other world6010042510,833,6 hydrogen economy

7 DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES IN RUSSIA Achievements of our country in the field of FC development are really unique. We don’t, however, use our potential to the full extent, thus not only postponing our progress in this promising area but also condemning ourselves to future dependency on economic and political ambitions of other countries. Main factors impeding Russian research and development in the field of FC and hydrogen energy: - no national program to promote the development and production of FC and FC-based power plants; - no special state funds to finance theoretical and application studies (previously funded as part of federal space programs); - ill-equipped industry not ready to produce FC and FC-based power plants; - private business not prepared for investing any substantial sums into research and development; - no clear and straightforward state policy, and no real support that could help to create environment-friendly power-saving technology. hydrogen economy

8 With purpose to reduce the existing lag in the research and development of hydrogen energy and FC, and recognizing the exceptional importance of hydrogen energy industry to the Russian economy, MMC Norilsk Nickel and Russian Academy of Sciences have agreed to consolidate their forces in this area. They are going to launch and finance the most vital theoretical, research, design and experimental projects relating to FC and FC-based power plants, including the following: - to lay scientific, technological and engineering grounds for further promotion of key units, plants and systems on the basis of hydrogen energy and FC; - to establish cooperation of research institutes and industrial companies in the field of hydrogen and FC infrastructure development; - to work out a mechanism of financing which should include private capital; - to study the situation on the global markets of FC and FC-based systems; to identify projects that are the most promising (competitive) from the viewpoint of large-scale production and marketing; hydrogen economy

9 ­ to organize the production of FC and FC-based systems; ­ to draft proposals with regard to the Russian hydrogen infrastructure and autonomous energy structure based on FC technologies; ­ to set up a Russian national program of hydrogen energy development, and to form bodies that will control and coordinate the realization of such program; ­ draft proposals with regard to the federal budget policy in the area of hydrogen economy and FC financing; ­ to elaborate legal and regulative foundation and a system of national standards, norms and requirements to the hydrogen energy infrastructure; ­ to enhance public knowledge of hydrogen energy merits and advantages, to show what benefits it may bring to the Russian economy, etc. This plan of action shall envisage the constitution of a Hydrogen Energy and FC Council with the Russian Academy of Sciences and publishing of an All-Russian Journal covering hydrogen and FC technologies. hydrogen economy

10 Major Russian R&D institutions working with hydrogen technologies and fuel cells 1. G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of RAS Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), catalysts, reforming processes – hydrocarbon fuel reformers Novosibirsk 2. Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Ural Branch of RAS High temperature solid oxide fuel cells and SOFC power plants Ekaterinburg 3. A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, RAS Hydrogen production and purification Moscow 4. G.V. Kurdyumov Institute of Metal Physics and Functional Materials, RAS Hydrogen storage technology using metal hydride systems and nanostructures Moscow 5. Institute of Microelectronics Technology and Ultra-Pure Materials, RAS FC multi-layer porous silicon membranes ethnology and silicon catalytic supports technology for reforming of hydrocarbon fuels and hydrogen production Cherno- golovka, Moscow region 6. A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, RAS Research and development of condensate polymer-based high temperature FC prototypes Moscow 7. Institute of Engineering Science, Ural Branch of RAS Integrated systems of hydrogen production, accumulation, storage and supply Ekaterinburg hydrogen economy

11 1. Federal State Unitary Enterprize (FSUE) Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Electrochemical generators powered by alkaline and proton exchange membrane FC (PEMFC) Novouralsk, Sverdlov region 2. Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (FSUE RFNC - VNIIEF) PEMFC power plants Sarov, Nizhniy Novgorod region 3. Russian Federal Nuclear Center – E.I. Zababakhin All-Russia Research Institute of Technical Physics (FSUE RFNC - VNIITF) SOFC power plants Snezhinsk, Chelabinsk region 4. Russian Research Center - Kurchatov Institute Hydrogen production, accumulation, storage and supply. SOFC Moscow 5. A.I. Leipunsky Physics and Power Institute - State Scientific Center Solid oxide FC and SOFC power plants Obninsk 6. S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia FC power units for automobile transport and residential applications Korolev, Moscow region 7. Special Boiler Design BureauFC power plantsSaint-Petersburg hydrogen economy

12 Fuel cells FC is an electrochemical device in which the energy of fuel and oxidant continuously supplied to electrodes is directly converted into electricity without low- efficient combustion process. As there is no heat/power conversion in these devices, their energy efficiency is much higher than that of traditional power units, and can reach 90%. hydrogen economy

13 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Chemical reactions in FC take place on special porous electrodes (anode and cathode) activated by palladium (or other platinum group metals), where chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen is efficiently converted into electricity. Hydrogen is oxidized on the anode and oxygen (or air) is reduced on the cathode. Catalyst on the anode speeds up the oxidation of hydrogen molecules into hydrogen ions (Н + ) and electrons. Hydrogen ions (protons) pass through the membrane to the cathode where the catalyst stimulates the formation of water out of protons, electrons and oxygen. Free electrons are conducted through the external circuit to produce electricity for various applications. Voltage in a separate FC doesn’t exceed 1,1V. To achieve the required voltage fuel cells are consequently combined in stacks, and FC stacks are connected in parallel to reach the required capacity. Such stacks together with gas distribution and thermoregulation elements form a single unit – a so called electrochemical generator. hydrogen economy

14 Types of fuel cells There are several types of fuel cells. They are usually differentiated by the type of fuel used, operating pressure and temperature, area of application. In the most wide-spread FC classification they are distinguished by the type of electrolyte material used as a medium for the internal transfer of ions (protons). The type of electrolyte determines the operating temperature on which the type of catalyst depends. The choice of fuel and oxidant for any FC depends on their electrochemical activity (that is, the speed of electrode reaction), cost, and easiness of fuel and oxidant delivery and removal of reaction by-products. The main source of FC fuel is hydrogen, but fuel conversion process allows to recover hydrogen from other materials like methanol, natural gas, oil, etc. Unlike batteries and traditional cells Fuel Cells cannot be exhausted. They require a refill of fuel such as hydrogen gas or liquid methanol in order to keep operating, but no “recharging”. hydrogen economy

15 Alkaline Electrolyte FC (AFC) The electrolyte in this fuel cell is concentrated (85 wt.) potassium hydroxide (KOH) in high temperature cells (~250ºC), or less concentrated (35-50 wt.) KOH for lower temperature (<120ºC) operation. In mid-1960s they were used for the Buran and Shuttle space vehicles. However, they have had relatively little success in terrestrial applications due to the high cost of producing high purity fuel and oxidiser streams, plus corrosion problems. Typical efficiency is 60%. Proton Exchange Membrane FC (PEMFC) The electrolyte in this fuel cell is a solid polymer membrane (thin plastic film) that is an excellent ion (proton) conductor. High current density in these cells means low weight, volume and cost. Solid electrolyte makes easier the process of sealing in the FC production, reduces corrosion and provides longer service life. Low operating temperature (below 100˚C) facilitates start-up and reaction to power requirements. These FC are ideal for transport vehicles and small-scale stationary applications. Phosphoric Acid Electrolyte FC (PAFC) The electrolyte in this fuel cell is 100% concentrated phosphoric acid retained in a matrix which is usually silicon carbide. PAFCs were the first to reach commercialization. Applications: stationary power plants in houses, hotels, hospitals, airports. Their efficiency exceeds 40% and may reach 85% when the by-product steam is used (compared to just 30% efficiency of any internal combustion engine). Molten Carbonate Electrolyte FC (MCFC) The electrolyte in this fuel cell is usually a combination of alkali carbonates, such as Na and K, which is retained in a ceramic matrix of LiAlO2. The fuel cell operates at about 600 to 700ºC thus allowing to use fuel directly, without any additional processing, and Ni may be used as a catalyst. MCFCs offer higher electrical efficiencies than PAFCs at around 60% plus the possibility of cogeneration (water heating) which makes overall efficiencies of 80% feasible. Reaction to any changes in the power requirement is slow, this is why they are suitable for applications where high power is needed constantly. At present there are numerous demonstration plants in the U.S.A. and Japan. One of American plants has a capacity of 1.8 MW. Solid Oxide Electrolyte FC (SOFC) The electrolyte in this fuel cell is a solid, nonporous metal oxide, usually Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2. Cells operate at 650 to 1000ºC where efficient conduction of anode seeking oxygen ions takes place. Operating temperatures are high enough to allow internal reforming and promote rapid kinetics with non precious materials. They are suitable for use in stationary power plants of large and very large scale. Overall efficiency is about 60%. hydrogen economy

16 FUEL CELLS APPLICATION hydrogen economy


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