Presentation on theme: "Causes of Increasing Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in U.S. Lakes U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of Increasing Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in U.S. Lakes U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey
PAHs are increasing in urban lakes Van Metre et al., Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005
What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? Benzo(a)pyrene Pyrene Naphthalene
In 1975, 11% urban Lake in the Hills, near Chicago In 2000, 78% urban
Population and PAH in lake sediment Population PAHs
City of Austin measures PAH concentrations greater than 1,500 mg/kg
What could be the source? Fresh asphalt1.5 Weathered asphalt3 Fresh motor oil4 Brake particles16 Road dust24 Tire-wear particles86 Diesel engine emissions102 Gasoline engine emissions370 Used motor oil440 1,500 mg/kg in creek sediment Pavement Sealcoat Asphalt-based 50 Coal-tar-based 100,000
Coal-tar sealcoat Used motor oil =
Mahler et al., Env. Sci. Technol., 2005
5.2 < , ,200 3,400 3,200 1,3000 Sealed Parking Lots (mg/kg) Unsealed Parking Lots AsphaltCoal tar 8.5 < AsphaltCoal tar Van Metre et al., Environ. Sci. Technol., 2009
What’s causing upward trends in PAHs?
Environmental forensics: PAH “fingerprints”
PAH fingerprints and Lake Anne sediment r=0.60 r=0.68 r=0.94 burning
Total PAH Wood burning Vehicles Coal burning Coal-tar sealcoat Sources of PAHs to Sediment in Lake Anne Reston, VA
PAH sources to U.S. urban lakes Coal-tar-based sealcoat Probable effects concentration Van Metre and Mahler, Sci. Total Environ., 2010
Without coal-tar-based sealcoat, the urban PAH baseline is low Probable effects concentration Five lakes with the lowest PAH contribution from coal-tar sealcoat Five lakes with the highest PAH contribution from coal-tar sealcoat
Biological effects Bommarito et al., 2010, Ecotoxicology Bommarito et al., 2010, Chemosphere Bryer et al., 2009, Environ. Poll. Bryer et al., 2006, Ecotoxicology Scoggins et al., 2006, J. NABS
Photos from Jupiter Images and Corbis Images, Inc.
23 ground-floor apartments
,760 Median total PAH [mg/kg] n=12n=11 Mahler et al., 2010, Environ. Sci. Technol.
PAHs are increasing in urban lakes nationally High PAH concentrations? Use is extensive? Particles are mobile? High PAH concentrations? Use is extensive? Particles are mobile? PAHs in house dust are elevated where coal-tar-based sealcoat is used Coal-tar-based sealcoat is the largest contributor of PAHs to urban lakes √ √ √
USGS publications on sealcoat and PAHs in peer-reviewed journals Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J., 2010, Contribution of PAHs from Coal-Tar Pavement Sealcoat and Other Sources to 40 U.S. Lakes. Sci. Total Environ., v. 409, Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Wilson, J. T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T. L.; Ennis, T.; Bashara, T. J., 2010, Coal-tar- based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust. Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 44, Yang, Y., Van Metre, P.C., Mahler, B.J., Wilson, J.T., Ligouis, B., Razzaque, M.M., Schaeffer, D.J., and Werth, C.J., 2010, Influence of coal-tar sealcoat and other carbonaceous materials on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon loading in an urban watershed. Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 44, p Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.; Wilson, J., 2009, PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from sealcoated pavements. Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 43, Van Metre, P.C., and Mahler, B.J., 2005, Trends in Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants in Lake Sediments Across the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 39, p Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Bashara, T. J.; Wilson, J. T.; Johns, D. A., 2005, Parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of urban PAHs. Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 39, Barbara Mahler, (512) Peter Van Metre, (512)
How do some sources compare? Milligrams of PAH in: One storm on a CT sealed driveway 56 mg (Mahler et al., 2005) One storm on a CT sealed driveway 174 mg (Watts et al., 2011) Driving 12,000 miles (tail pipe)56 mg (Bergvall and Westerholm, 2009) Driving 23,000 miles (tire wear)56 mg (Aatmeeyata, 2010) One storm on an unsealed driveway0.86 mg (Mahler et al., 2005)