Presentation on theme: "1 The CSP-DSW Study Overview G. Tzamtzis. 2 The CSP-DSW Project STUDY SCOPE To conduct a Research and Development Study containing a techno-economic assessment."— Presentation transcript:
2 The CSP-DSW Project STUDY SCOPE To conduct a Research and Development Study containing a techno-economic assessment study of the current status of technology in the co-production of electricity and desalinated water (by Sea Water Desalination-SWD) using Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Funded by: The Cyprus Government, through the Department of Control The project is co-financed by the EU Cohesion Fund
3 The CSP-DSW Project Coordinator: The Cyprus Institute (CyI) Principle Investigator: Prof. C.N. Papanicolas Research Partners: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC) Electric Authority of Cyprus (EAC)
Complete dependence on fossil fuel Cyprus is almost completely dependent on fossil fuel at a rate of about 96% (2006) with almost no hydrocarbon resources indigenously existing on the island. Soaring oil prices and natural gas shortages in Europe due to political disputes in 2008 emphasize the criticality of minimizing the dependence on such resources for energy production. Increasing Energy demand Energy demand has continued to increase in the past years. Energy consumption rose from 1978 GWh in 1991 to 4396 GWh in 2006. The increase is mostly due to Cyprus’ economic growth over the past twenty years as well as the continuous population growth. Increased Carbon Emissions The use of hydrocarbons is the primary source of carbon emissions and especially CO 2 a potent greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming. The national target for 2010 is set at 9% of total energy consumption to be from renewable sources. In the newly proposed EU Directive, the target for 2020 is 13%. Cyprus’ Energy Problem
5 Peak electricity demand and forecast in Cyprus
Cyprus’ Water Problem Water Scarcity Cyprus has always faced prolonged periods of drought. Rising temperatures and decreased precipitation due to Climate Change exacerbate the problem. Climate model predictions Robust model predictions are unfavourable: by the end of this century a 20% - 40% reduction in rainfall is expected, while the temperature is expected to increase by 3-6 degrees Celsius. Water reservoirs critically low Although steps have been taken to maximize capacity, water in dams is low and aquifers are almost depleted.
7 The increasing role of Desalination Source: Cyprus WDD Cyprus
8 CSP and Desalination The CSP-DSW project examines a most promising solution for Cyprus: Production of water to cover the rising demand and simultaneous production of economically competitive, green electricity from solar power. CSP Technology has been used with Desalination but in a “serial” way, i.e. production of electricity through solar power first and then utilization of the produced electricity for desalination. The co-generation scheme examines the feasibility of a more efficient, cost-saving and environment-friendly plant for electricity and water production
CSP-DSW Project Organization Prof. Papanicolas and Dr. Anastasiou, CyI Techno-Economic Assessment and Siting Prof. Slocum, MIT Solar Collection and Heat Storage Dr. Poullikkas, EAC Electricity Production Prof. Georgiadis, UIUC Desalination Prof. Mitsos, MIT Optimization and Integration To better examine and investigate the various aspects of the project, it has been divided into the following themes:
10 Techno-economic and Siting Assessment Group at CyI Prof. C. N. Papanicolas Dr. T. Anastasiou Dr. A. Bonanos Dr. G. Tzamtzis Dr. I. Mitra Light Harvesting and Heat Storage Group at MIT Prof. Alex Slocum Prof. Jacopo Buongiorno Dr. Charles Forsberg Prof. Ahmed F. Ghoniem Prof. T. Alan Hatton Dr. Tom McKrell Mr. Danny Codd Mr. Nevan Hanumara Mr. Stefano Passerini Mr. Folkers Rojas Mr. Vaibhav Somani Electricity Production Group at EAC Dr. Andreas Poullikkas Dr. Constantinos Rouvas Mr. Ioannis Hadjipaschalis Mr. George Kourtis Desalination Group at UIUC Prof. John Georgiadis Mrs. Andrea Vozar Dr. Myunghoon Seong Mr. Joao Pedro Bianco Bekenn Mr. Marios Georgiou Optimization and Integration Group at MIT Prof. Alexander Mitsos Dr. Amin Ghobeity Mr. Corey J. Noone, Mr. Christopher M. Williams Ms. Latifah H. Hamzah Mr. Alex Pak CSP-DSW Project Organization
11 An examination of current technologies for Desalination and Electricity Production using CSP for Cyprus An assessment of the maturity of the available technologies for implementation in a pilot and a commercial plant. An innovative design for a Pilot plant for Cyprus, with proposals for its various subsystems Operational parameters, capacity and an operational plan of the proposed pilot plant. An Economic Assessment of the proposed technology. The Study Focused on: The CSP-DSW Project
12 CSP-DSW Considerations Constraints and Considerations: The unit must present a co-generation solution bespoken for Cyprus’ needs and conditions. Cyprus has an isolated grid and is depended completely on fossil fuel. It also relies heavily on desalination which is very energy demanding The Unit must operate independently and continuously, (no fossil fuel assisted operation). This dictates the use of energy storage for operation during the night and cloudy weather The Unit should take into account the geographical conditions in Cyprus. Flat land, especially near the coast is scarce and expensive. The unit should be deployed in a hilly and coastal environment (Fresnel and Parabolic troughs unsuitable)
13 CSP-DSW Considerations Constraints and Considerations: The Unit should utilize all available thermal energy from Solar Harvesting, Storage and Power Cycle to enhance its performance and introduce savings The Unit should produce simultaneously both electricity and water, with the ability to modify its operation according to seasonal and instantaneous needs
The advantages of CSP-DSW are realized only when the power and desalination cycles are integrated thermally and optimized together. CSP-DSW co-generation simplified concept The CSP-DSW co-generation scheme will try to utilise the all available thermal energy from the various subsystems
The CSP-DSW Project System Description: SOLAR HARVESTING AND HEAT STORAGE Light (solar energy) will be harvested by a field of Heliostats on a hilly, south facing, location near the sea. The solar energy will be captured by a central receiver and converted to heat and stored in a salt container of novel design at high temperatures (500 to 600 ο C). A second, more advance and technologically far more challenging design for the storage unit, employing very high operating temperatures (600 – 1000 ο C) has also been studied, providing an excellent future solution (supercritical CO2 cycle) The Solar Harvesting and Storage Module is based on the innovative CSPonD concept developed by Slocum et al. at MIT.
The CSP-DSW Project System Description: POWER PRODUCTION Steam will be generated from the heat reservoir of the salt container. Electricity will be produced using commercially available Steam extraction turbine. DESALINATION Desalinated water will be produced using an innovative Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) with a Thermal Vapour Compressor, principally from the heat output of the steam turbine and other heat sources of the system. A hybrid solution (MED+RO) might introduce further flexibility and efficiency in the system.
The CSP-DSW Project System Integration and Optimization: A critical component of the study has been The optimal integration of the proposed plant’s subsystems The determination of its optimal operation at nominal condition and accounting for time-variability and uncertainties To this end, system-level models were developed for dynamic simulation and optimization
The CSP-DSW Project Financial Assessment of the CSP-DSE System: An extended Financial Assessment of the proposed pilot plant has also been modelled This is a crucial part of the Study as it confirms the initial hypothesis about the advantageous nature of the co- generation scheme and the promise that RES hold for the future It has also shed some light over to which desalination method (RO or MED) is preferable from a financial point of view It has also revealed a number of flaws in the incentives for the promotion of RES in Cyprus
The CSP-DSW Project Presentations: Prof. Mitsos will talk about the CSP-DSW subsystems integration and optimization process and operational considerations. Overview of the whole system Mr. Danny Codd will present the innovative CSPonD concept for the integrated Central Receiver and Storage system Dr. Rouvas will present the considerations and issues pertained to the turbine coupling to the whole system and in particular the desalination cycle Prof. Georgiadis will discuss the various desalination options and present an MED proposal for the CSP-DSW system Prof. Papanicolas will present the financial assessment of the technology and the overall conclusions of the study.
The CSP-DSW Project Acknowledgments Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority Cyprus Land Survey Cyprus Meteorological Service Department of Control Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism Ministry of Communication and Works Ministry of Interior Ministry of Education Planning Bureau Water Development Department