Basics Methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acid Jatropha curcas, Pongamia Pinnata, Calophyllum inophyllum, Hevca brasiliensis etc. Blending Clean fuel Substantial Reduction Cetane Number Specifications
contd B20 US Environmental protection agency B100 Department of Energy and Transportation of US Reduction in particulate matter (25-50%) Marginal increase in Nitrous Oxide Production – 100 million Gallons,reduction of taxes Raw materials –Europe –Sunflower, Rape seed USA- Soya Thailand-Palm Oil
contd Viscosity – 1.9 – 6 centi stokes Biodiesel Blend –USA 20%, European countries 5-15% Germany -1500 filling stations Benefits It is safe to handle, store, transport Nontoxic and Biodegradable High flash point Reduces air toxic Engine Performance
Biodiesel Chemistry Biodiesel: Industrial production – “cracking of petroleum” Vegetable oil: three of those long chains are stuck onto a glycerin backbone Diesel fuel: one long chain of carbon atoms studded with hydrogen atoms Biodiesel chemistry: breaking those long carbon chains off the glycerin backbone
Biodiesel Chemistry Transesterification Triglyceride Fats and oils Glycerin, or Glycerol, is primarily found in nature as the linking chemical in fats Fats are also known as triglycerides Three hydrocarbon chains linked to one glycerin molecule
Biodiesel Chemistry Transesterification Steps involved: methanol molecules a catalyst –bridge chemical gap catalyst breaks bonds glycerin and the three fatty acids methanol binds to fatty acids forms biodiesel and also a crude glycerin
Biodiesel Chemistry: Biodiesel Production oil + methanol + KOH [at 50 ◦c] Bioreactor Settling Washing Purification Evaporation PURE BIODIESEL Noted : Water Saponification –FFA ↓ water -↑ biodiesel Catalyst Twice the volume of oil Reversible balance Glycerine BIODIESEL Methanol Recovery Evaporation
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