Presentation on theme: "1 Elements and compounds in living organisms and Macromolecules."— Presentation transcript:
1 Elements and compounds in living organisms and Macromolecules
ELEMENTS IN LIVING ORGANISMS The commonest chemical elements of life are: –Carbon (C) –Hydrogen (H) –Oxygen (O) –Nitrogen (N) 2 CHON
What do these words mean?
The shape of Glucose is a hexagonal ring
6 Example USE IN ANIMALS Example USE IN PLANTS Glucose is carried by blood to transport energy throughout the body. Fructose is used to make fruits sweet- tasting attracting animals to disperse the fruit’s seeds. glucose Monosaccharide: one sugar unit
Lipid structure 8 A fatty acid molecule has two distinct regions: a Long, hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain, and a carboxylic acid group, extremely reactive and hydrophilic.
9 Lipids Functions of lipids: Energy Storage: In the form of fat in humans and oil in plants. 1.Energy Storage: In the form of fat in humans and oil in plants. 2.Heat insulation: A layer of fat under the skin reduces heat loss. 3.Buoyancy: lipids are less dense than water so help animals to float.
Carbohydrates and Lipids in Energy Storage 10 Carbohydrates: energy storage over short periods Lipids: for long term storage
12 Proteins (Polypeptides) peptide bonds polypeptidesAmino acids (20 different kinds of aa) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides). Six functions of proteins:Six functions of proteins: 1.Storage:albumin (egg white) 2.Transport: hemoglobin 3.Regulatory:hormones 4.Movement:muscles 5.Structural:membranes, hair, nails 6.Enzymes:cellular reactions
AMINOACIDS 13 Amino acids are molecules that contain a basic amino (NH2) group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side chain attached to an alpha carbon atom (NH2) Amino Group
AMINOACID Amino acid: One of the 20 building blocks of protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and, hence, the function of that protein are determined by the genetic code in the DNA. 14