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FOSSILS UNIT ONE
WARM-UP #1 How do most fossils form?
ANSWER Living things die and their remains are covered by sediments.
WARM-UP #2 A fossil formed when minerals replace all or part of an organism is called____________.
ANSWER Petrified fossil
WARM-UP #3 Which type of fossil can provide clues about the activities of ancient organisms?
ANSWER Trace fossil
VOCABUALRY Fossil Mold & cast Petrified
VOCABULARY Fossil A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock Mold & cast A fossil formed when an organism buried in sediment dissolves, leaving a hollow area
VOCABULARY Petrified A fossil in which minerals replace all or part of an organism
WARM-UP #4 The fossil record shows that life on Earth has changed over time. For example, paleontologists have found that older rocks contain fossils of
ANSWER organisms that are simpler than those alive today.
WARM-UP #5 The relative age of a rock is
ANSWER its age compared to the ages of other rocks.
WARM-UP #6 The law of superposition states that, in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is
ANSWER older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.
VOCABUALRY Carbon film Trace Paleontologist
VOCABUALRY Carbon film A type of fossil consisting of an extremely thin coating of carbon on rock Trace A type of fossil that provides evidence 0f the activities of the ancient organism
VOCABUALRY Paleontologist A scientist that studies fossils to learn about organisms that lived a long time ago
WARM-UP #7 What is the age of an intrusion of igneous rock in relation to the sedimentary rock layers through which it passes?
ANSWER always younger
WARM-UP #8 The fossils of organisms that were widely distributed but only lived during a short period of time are called
ANSWER index fossils.
WARM-UP #9 Why are index fossils useful to geologists?
ANSWER They tell the relative age of the rock in which they occur.
VOCABUALRY Relative age Absolute age Law of superposition
VOCABUALRY Relative age The age of a rock compared to the ages of rock layers Absolute age The age of a rock given as the number of years since the rock formed
VOCABULARY Law of superposition The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it
WARM-UP #10 The earliest life forms were
ANSWER single-celled organisms.
WARM-UP #11 What is a fossil?
ANSWER the preserved remains or traces of an organism
WARM-UP #12 In which type of fossil might you find the remains of an insect preserved with little or no change?
ANSWER fossil in amber
VOCABUALRY unconformity Index fossil
VOCABUALRY Unconformity A place where old, eroded rock surface is in contact with a newer rock layer Index fossil Fossils distributed organisms that lived during only one short period
WARM-UP #13 A type of organism that no longer exists on Earth is said to be __________.
WARM-UP #14 Fossils usually occur in _____________________ rock.
WARM-UP #15 Generally, only the ________ parts of organisms become fossils.
VOCABUALRY Hydrocarbon Petroleum
VOCABUALRY Hydrocarbon An energy-rich chemical compound that contains carbon and hydrogen atoms petroleum Liquid fossil fuel; oil
WARM-UP #16 Footprints and trails are examples of__________________.
ANSWER Trace fossils
WARM-UP #17 The law of superposition helps geologists determine the________________ age of a rock layer.
WARM-UP #18 Rock layers are always _______________ than the faults that cut across them.
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