Compounds Name any ionic or covalent compound: – NaClO 4 – PCl 5 Name simple organic compounds: –C3H8–C3H8 – C 3 H 7 OH (this has two names)
Equations Combination, decomposition, combustion, acid/base, precipitation, single replacement, redox: – iron and oxygen react… – hydrogen peroxide decomposes… – propane combusts… – nitric acid reacts with magnesium hydroxide… – sodium sulfate reacts with lead nitrate… – magnesium and lead nitrate… – magnesium and sulfuric acid…
Empirical formula / % mass / combustion analysis Find the formula: – 73.9% Hg and 26.1% Cl by mass – 12.64g of S is present in a sample of sulfuric acid. How many grams of O & H are present? – A hydrocarbon sample weighing 0.5992g contains 0.5040g C and 0.09515g H. The molecular mass is 114g. What is the formula of the hydrocarbon??
Stoichiometry Identify limiting reactants/Theoretical yield: – 40L of hydrogen reacts with 40g of oxygen – how many grams of water should be produced (& what volume)? – What is the actual yield if 22g of water are produced?
Solutions Concentration: 571.6g H 2 SO 4 per liter of solution. Density = 1.329g/cm 3 – % mass? – Mole fraction? – Molality? – Molarity? Factors that affect dissolving: pressure, temperature, solvent/solute interactions Colligative properties: 1M NaF, 1M MgCl 2, 1M C 2 H 5 OH – Lowest electrical conductivity? – Lowest freezing point? – Highest pH?
Kinetics Rate law/order of reaction – Formula for calculating 1 st order rate? 2 nd order? Reaction mechanism – Order of reaction with respect to Cl - ?, MnO 4 - ? – It is 3 rd order for H + - write the rate law – Is this likely to be an elementary reaction?
Equilibrium Expression for K c & K p Predict reaction using Q Le Chatelier’s principle C + CO 2 2CO – Equilibrium pressure is 8.37atm. P CO 2 = 1.63atm. Calculate K p – 10g of C is placed in a container with CO 2 & CO, each with a partial pressure of 2.0atm. Will the partial pressure of CO 2 increase/decrease/stay the same as the system approaches equilibrium?
Acids & Bases K w, K a, K b, pH, strong & weak acids & bases – K b for C 2 H 3 O 2 - ? pH of 1.0M NaC 2 H 3 O 2 ? – Strong or weak? – Ca(OH) 2, CaO, Fe(OH) 2 Carboxylic acid: R-C-OOH Lewis acid Buffer: K a = [H + ][A - ]/[HA], [H + ] = K a [HA]/[A - ] Titration: – pH of 20ml of 0.2M HF? – pH after it is titrated with 10ml 0.2M NaOH – pH at equivalence point?
Thermochemistry/Thermodynamics Enthalpy: Hess’ Law, H° f Entropy: S, molecular motion & Boltzmann – Greater entropy – NO or NO 2 ? explain Gibbs: G = H -T S – An endothermic reaction could be spontaneous at what temperature range? – Equilibrium: G° = -RTlnK, G = G° + RTlnQ