# Compounds Name any ionic or covalent compound:

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Compounds Name any ionic or covalent compound:
NaClO4 PCl5 Name simple organic compounds: C3H8 C3H7OH (this has two names)

Equations Combination, decomposition, combustion, acid/base, precipitation, single replacement, redox: iron and oxygen react… hydrogen peroxide decomposes… propane combusts… nitric acid reacts with magnesium hydroxide… sodium sulfate reacts with lead nitrate… magnesium and lead nitrate… magnesium and sulfuric acid…

Empirical formula / % mass / combustion analysis
Find the formula: 73.9% Hg and 26.1% Cl by mass 12.64g of S is present in a sample of sulfuric acid. How many grams of O & H are present? A hydrocarbon sample weighing g contains g C and g H. The molecular mass is 114g. What is the formula of the hydrocarbon??

Stoichiometry Identify limiting reactants/Theoretical yield:
40L of hydrogen reacts with 40g of oxygen – how many grams of water should be produced (& what volume)? What is the actual yield if 22g of water are produced?

Solutions Concentration: 571.6g H2SO4 per liter of solution. Density = 1.329g/cm3 % mass? Mole fraction? Molality? Molarity? Factors that affect dissolving: pressure, temperature, solvent/solute interactions Colligative properties: 1M NaF, 1M MgCl2, 1M C2H5OH Lowest electrical conductivity? Lowest freezing point? Highest pH?

Kinetics Rate law/order of reaction Reaction mechanism
Formula for calculating 1st order rate? 2nd order? Reaction mechanism Order of reaction with respect to Cl-?, MnO4-? It is 3rd order for H+ - write the rate law Is this likely to be an elementary reaction?

Equilibrium Expression for Kc & Kp Predict reaction using Q
Le Chatelier’s principle C + CO2  2CO Equilibrium pressure is 8.37atm. PCO2 = 1.63atm. Calculate Kp 10g of C is placed in a container with CO2 & CO, each with a partial pressure of 2.0atm. Will the partial pressure of CO2 increase/decrease/stay the same as the system approaches equilibrium?

Acids & Bases Kw, Ka, Kb, pH, strong & weak acids & bases
Kb for C2H3O2-? pH of 1.0M NaC2H3O2? Strong or weak? – Ca(OH)2, CaO, Fe(OH)2 Carboxylic acid: R-C-OOH Lewis acid Buffer: Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA], [H+] = Ka [HA]/[A-] Titration: pH of 20ml of 0.2M HF? pH after it is titrated with 10ml 0.2M NaOH pH at equivalence point?

Thermochemistry/Thermodynamics
Enthalpy: Hess’ Law, H°f Entropy: S, molecular motion & Boltzmann Greater entropy – NO or NO2? explain Gibbs: G =  H -TS An endothermic reaction could be spontaneous at what temperature range? Equilibrium: G° = -RTlnK, G = G° + RTlnQ

Electrochemistry Voltaic cell set-up: G° = -nFE ° = -RTlnK.
Mg/Mg2+ and Cu/Cu2+. Cathode? Anode? ½ reactions? Cell potential? G° = -nFE ° = -RTlnK. Explain why E is intensive but G is extensive. Non-standard conditions: E = E° + (RT/nF)lnQ, E = E° - (0.0592/n)logQ Explain how a concentration cell works Electrolysis: 1 mole e- = 96500C = 1F (1C = 1amp x sec) G = work = nFE (work: 1W = 1J/s, 1kWhr = 3.6x106J)

Gases Ideal gas law: Dalton’s law: Kinetic molecular theory
density of 2 moles He at 35°C, 2atm? Dalton’s law: Pressure of 20ml He collected over water at 25°C when atmospheric pressure measures 755Torr? Kinetic molecular theory Effusion/diffusion: He and Ne at 25°C. highest energy? Fastest? Real gases: conditions?

Intermolecular/atomic
3 types of forces H2O BP = 100°C, H2S BP = -180°C explain Vapor pressure & Phase diagrams Lewis diagrams: formal charge, resonance, octet exceptions LDD for O3 VSEPR: electron domain geometry & molecular shapes Shape: BrO2-, XeF2 Hybridization: BrO2-, XeF2