2 Compounds Name any ionic or covalent compound: NaClO4PCl5Name simple organic compounds:C3H8C3H7OH (this has two names)
3 EquationsCombination, decomposition, combustion, acid/base, precipitation, single replacement, redox:iron and oxygen react…hydrogen peroxide decomposes…propane combusts…nitric acid reacts with magnesium hydroxide…sodium sulfate reacts with lead nitrate…magnesium and lead nitrate…magnesium and sulfuric acid…
4 Empirical formula / % mass / combustion analysis Find the formula:73.9% Hg and 26.1% Cl by mass12.64g of S is present in a sample of sulfuric acid. How many grams of O & H are present?A hydrocarbon sample weighing g contains g C and g H. The molecular mass is 114g. What is the formula of the hydrocarbon??
5 Stoichiometry Identify limiting reactants/Theoretical yield: 40L of hydrogen reacts with 40g of oxygen – how many grams of water should be produced (& what volume)?What is the actual yield if 22g of water are produced?
6 SolutionsConcentration: 571.6g H2SO4 per liter of solution. Density = 1.329g/cm3% mass?Mole fraction?Molality?Molarity?Factors that affect dissolving: pressure, temperature, solvent/solute interactionsColligative properties: 1M NaF, 1M MgCl2, 1M C2H5OHLowest electrical conductivity?Lowest freezing point?Highest pH?
7 Kinetics Rate law/order of reaction Reaction mechanism Formula for calculating 1st order rate? 2nd order?Reaction mechanismOrder of reaction with respect to Cl-?, MnO4-?It is 3rd order for H+ - write the rate lawIs this likely to be an elementary reaction?
8 Equilibrium Expression for Kc & Kp Predict reaction using Q Le Chatelier’s principleC + CO2 2COEquilibrium pressure is 8.37atm. PCO2 = 1.63atm. Calculate Kp10g of C is placed in a container with CO2 & CO, each with a partial pressure of 2.0atm. Will the partial pressure of CO2 increase/decrease/stay the same as the system approaches equilibrium?
9 Acids & Bases Kw, Ka, Kb, pH, strong & weak acids & bases Kb for C2H3O2-? pH of 1.0M NaC2H3O2?Strong or weak? – Ca(OH)2, CaO, Fe(OH)2Carboxylic acid: R-C-OOHLewis acidBuffer: Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA], [H+] = Ka [HA]/[A-]Titration:pH of 20ml of 0.2M HF?pH after it is titrated with 10ml 0.2M NaOHpH at equivalence point?
10 Thermochemistry/Thermodynamics Enthalpy: Hess’ Law, H°fEntropy: S, molecular motion & BoltzmannGreater entropy – NO or NO2? explainGibbs: G = H -TSAn endothermic reaction could be spontaneous at what temperature range?Equilibrium: G° = -RTlnK, G = G° + RTlnQ
11 Electrochemistry Voltaic cell set-up: G° = -nFE ° = -RTlnK. Mg/Mg2+ and Cu/Cu2+. Cathode? Anode? ½ reactions? Cell potential?G° = -nFE ° = -RTlnK.Explain why E is intensive but G is extensive.Non-standard conditions: E = E° + (RT/nF)lnQ, E = E° - (0.0592/n)logQExplain how a concentration cell worksElectrolysis: 1 mole e- = 96500C = 1F (1C = 1amp x sec)G = work = nFE (work: 1W = 1J/s, 1kWhr = 3.6x106J)
12 Gases Ideal gas law: Dalton’s law: Kinetic molecular theory density of 2 moles He at 35°C, 2atm?Dalton’s law:Pressure of 20ml He collected over water at 25°C when atmospheric pressure measures 755Torr?Kinetic molecular theoryEffusion/diffusion:He and Ne at 25°C. highest energy? Fastest?Real gases: conditions?
13 Intermolecular/atomic 3 types of forcesH2O BP = 100°C, H2S BP = -180°C explainVapor pressure & Phase diagramsLewis diagrams: formal charge, resonance, octet exceptionsLDD for O3VSEPR: electron domain geometry & molecular shapesShape: BrO2-, XeF2Hybridization: BrO2-, XeF2