# MIDTERM REVIEW WORKSHEET OPEN BOOK 30 POINT QUIZ To Be Turned in at your Midterm.

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MIDTERM REVIEW WORKSHEET OPEN BOOK 30 POINT QUIZ To Be Turned in at your Midterm

Components of an Experiment Independent Variable: The factor in the experiment that is purposely changed. “I” the examiner change Dependent Variable: Measurable factor that responds to a change in the independent variable. Dependent depends on the independent. Constant- Conditions that remain the same during the course of the experiment Control- A standard for comparison, not in every experiment.

**Remember how to choose the Independent variable (what “I” the examiner change), Dependent variable (depends on the independent- usually measurable), Constants (remains the same), Control (standard to compare to) etc.

How to Graph “Effect of IV on DV”

Scientific Method A series of logical steps that are followed to solve a problem. Uses critical thinking

PIE CHART- parts of a whole, %

Bar Graph- Comparison of similar data for several different items or events

LINE GRAPH: For displaying data that changes over time

Metric Conversion of Units Base: Meter Liter Gram by Base: Meter Liter Gram by

Metric Conversion Units

Accuracy vs Precision

MATTER SubstanceMixture ElementCompound Heterogeneous Mixture Homogeneous Mixture ‘Solutions’ Atom:Molecule: Examples:

MATTER PURE SUBSTANCE MIXTURE Matter that has a fixed composition (makeup) and definite properties (chemical and physical). Matter that is a combination of two or more pure substances that do not have a fixed composition or definite properties. Are chemically combined- so they can’t be physically separated. Are NOT chemically combined, so components CAN be separated.

Compound: A substance made of atoms of 2 or more different elements that are chemically combined.

Element: A substance that can’t be broken down into simpler substances Each element is made of only one kind of atom.

ATOM: The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of the element.

MOLECULE: H 2 O O 2 The smallest unit of a substance that behaves like the substance. (Keeps all of its physical and chemical properties)

Changes of State

PHYSICAL CHANGE Dissolving Sanding Crushing Breaking/cutting Bending/twisting Mixing CHANGE OF STATE – Melting/evaporating – freezing A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties

CHEMICAL CHANGE ODOR COLOR CHANGE BUBBLING FIZZING FOAMING HEAT PRODUCED SOUND PRODUCED A change of matter that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances CANNOT BE REVERSED BY PHYSICAL CHANGES

Changes of State

Buoyant Force The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced.

Archimedes Principle An object that is submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced

Density D = M/V mass volume

Pascal’s Principle A change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest is transmitted equally throughout the fluid.

VISCOSITYVISCOSITY

Pressure Temperature and Volume

Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law of Gases: Constant Temperature: If you decrease the volume you will increase the pressure. Constant Pressure: If you increase the temperature the volume will increase (if it could).

Bohr’s Model of the Atom Like planets around the sun

METALS NONMETALS Periodic Table

RETURN Types of Bonds: IONIC M-NM High Melting and Boiling Points Transfer of electrons Conducts electricity ONLY when dissolved or melted back into ions

RETURN Types of Bonds- Covalent NM-NM Lower Boiling and Melting Points Sharing of electrons Does not usually Conduct Electricity

“Electron Sea” Free Flowing electrons-conducts electricity easily RETURN Types of Bonds- Metallic M-M Highest Boiling and Melting Points

METALS Alkali Metals Alkali Earth Metals Transitions Metals ‘Other Metals’ NON-METALS ‘Other Non-Metals’ Halogens Noble Gases Form Cations + Form Anions -

ATOMIC NUMBER = Number of Protons = Number of Electrons

MASS NUMBER = (Atomic Mass, Atomic Weight) Number of Protons + Number of Neutrons Atomic Number + Number of Neutrons

Using the Periodic Table ELEMENT NAME AND SYMBOL ATOMIC # MASS NUMBER (round to nearest whole number) NUMBER of PROTONS NUMBER of NEUTRONS NUMBER of ELECTRONS NUMBER of VALENCE ELECTRONS OXIDATION NUMBER and CHARGE (+ or -) (P)15 38 Gallium (Ga) 31

Using the Periodic Table ELEMENT NAME AND SYMBOL ATOMIC # MASS NUMBER (round to nearest whole number) NUMBER of PROTONS NUMBER of NEUTRONS NUMBER of ELECTRONS NUMBER of VALENCE ELECTRONS OXIDATION NUMBER and CHARGE (+ or -) Phosphorus (P) Strontium (Sr) Gallium (Ga) 31703139313+3 Remember: Atomic number is = the number of Protons In a Neutral Atom the number of = protons is = to the number of – electrons All the Mass in in the nucleus- The Mass Number is = Protons + Neutrons Valence Electrons = outer shell = Group 1 has 1, Group 2 = 2, Group 13 = 3, Group 14 = 4 etc Oxidation # = # of electrons taken in (-) or give away (+) to get to a full valence shell.

Dalton's Atomic Theory 1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible. 2) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties 3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms. 4) A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.

This chart and a Periodic Table will be provided to you- you just have to know how to READ it and USE it. Practice with your class worksheets, quizzes and homeworks

Organic Compound A COVALENTLY bonded compound that contains carbon Most common elements: C,H ANY organic compound that is burned will release Carbon in some form

Hydrocarbon An organic compound made of only carbon and hydrogen Simplest Hydrocarbon: Methane

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes Only Single Bonds C-C At least one Double C=C At least one Triple C=C

POLYMERS Polymers are substances that are made up of a large number of repeating units (monomers). There are both synthetic and naturally occurring polymers. Formed by chemical reactions in which these monomers are joined in a certain order, forming a chain.

Natural Polymers: ProteinsProteins - silk, collagen, keratin, DNA Repeating units of amino acids Carbohydrates - cellulose, starch. Made up of repeating units of glucose Carbohydrates Other Natural polymers: Rubber (hydrocarbon base) and silicones (alternating silicon and oxygen).

Cross Linking of Polymers: Cross linking: Makes the polymer elastic, flexible by helping it to go back to its original shape after stretching. Too many cross links and the polmer becomes rigid (like the back of a desk chair), or may even crack/break

Counting Atoms 2H 2 O = 2 Molecules of H 2 O, or 4 atoms of H, 2 atoms of O, 6 atoms all together Co

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