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Lab No 14 Isopach and Isochore Maps University of Sulaimani School of Science Department of Geology Practical Structural Geology Instructor: Halko M. Mahmoud.

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Presentation on theme: "Lab No 14 Isopach and Isochore Maps University of Sulaimani School of Science Department of Geology Practical Structural Geology Instructor: Halko M. Mahmoud."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lab No 14 Isopach and Isochore Maps University of Sulaimani School of Science Department of Geology Practical Structural Geology Instructor: Halko M. Mahmoud

2 Why does thickness change?  Sedimentary beds may show lateral changes in thickness, either in connection with an erosional episode that created an unconformity or due to lateral facies changes.  It is very crucial for the hydrocarbon industries to document the lateral changes in the layer thickness.

3 Thickness Maps  Thickness maps are fundamental tools in structural geology. They represent thickness variations and thickness trends of a given unit.  There are two different types of thickness map which are Isochore and isopach maps. An isochore is a line that connects points of equal vertical thickness. An isopach is a line that connects points of equal true thickness (i.e. measured perpendicular to bedding)

4 Thickness Maps  Thickness of subsurface unit can be obtained from seismic section and drilled wells.  Vertical thickness increased with increasing dip angle and when dip angle is zero the true thickness and vertical thickness are equal.  Cos Ɵ = true thickness/ apparent thickness  The thickness map of any unit can be obtained from the structure contour for the top and bottom of the unit.

5 How to construct isopach lines Construction of isopachs from strucutre contour maps. a) structure contour of top (solid lines) and bottom (dashed lines) of a limestone bed. b) Isopach map. c) sections across the limestone.

6 Isopach Maps Along with the porosity and water saturation data, isopach map is used to estimate the volume of hydrocarbon in a reservoir.

7 Exercise There is a sandstone bed in this map south of A-B line. The solid lines represent the structure contours of the upper surface of the sandstone and the dash lines represent its lower surface.


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