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Micro-tremor Analysis in Seismic Reflection Data for Identification of Oil and Gas Reservoirs Tatiana Chichinina, Instituto Mexicano.

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Presentation on theme: "Micro-tremor Analysis in Seismic Reflection Data for Identification of Oil and Gas Reservoirs Tatiana Chichinina, Instituto Mexicano."— Presentation transcript:

1 Micro-tremor Analysis in Seismic Reflection Data for Identification of Oil and Gas Reservoirs Tatiana Chichinina, tichqvoa@yahoo.com Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP) Eugeny Hogoev IPGG Russian Academy of Sciences Alfonso Reyes-Pimentel UNAM ® 1 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014

2 2 The method is based on the phenomenon of natural seismic emission associated with Micro-Tremors of Hydrocarbon reservoirs in the subsurface of the Earth. This Hydrocarbon Microtremor is also called by Lambert et al. (2013 ) as “Ambient Wavefield Modification caused by a Hydrocarbon reservoir”. Lambert M.-A., Saenger E.H., Quintal B., and Schmalholz S.M., 2013, Numerical simulation of ambient seismic wavefield modification caused by pore-fluid effects in an oil reservoir, GEOPHYSICS, 78, T41–T52.

3 3 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 Method. Frequency band of micro-tremors. Updated Method with application to field data. Physical reasons of micro-tremors.

4 4 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 Method Frequency band of micro-tremors. Updated Method with application to field data. Physical reasons of micro-tremors.

5 The advantage of the method (proposed by Vedernikov, 2001) is that the input data for the analysis can be extracted from the conventional seismic reflection data. Thus, the method is of easy field-data acquisition compared to other passive seismic methods. 5 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014

6 Additional part of seismogram used for the analysis of micro -tremors 6 Long offsets and early times The methodology consists of the use of raw seismic records at early times and far offsets.  These portions of the seismic traces contain information prior to the arrival of the waves generated by artificial source. EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014

7 7 Spectral analysis of micro-tremors linked to the presence of hydrocarbons The end result is spectral amplitude values of micro-tremors ​​ for different frequency ranges shown along the seismic line, that is to say depending on the position of the receiver. You can note that the maximum intensity of the amplitude spectrum is observed in in the frequency interval from 10 Hz to 20 Hz. Bh1 [10 Hz ; 20 Hz]

8 8 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 Method Frequency band of micro-tremors Updated Method with application to field data Physical reasons of micro-tremors

9 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 9 In other methods of Hydrocarbon Microtremor Analysis (HyMA), It has been observed that natural micro-tremor response in areas of oil and gas reservoirs exhibit certain characteristic behavior, with the maximum amplitude-spectrum energy at lower frequencies, in the interval from 1.5 Hz to 6 Hz. This frequency range of the Micro-Tremors is the same for different oil-gas fields. Note that in those methods there are no any sources used for excitation of artificial waves such as reflected waves in our case. In our method, which we present here, we use conventional seismic data, which is reflected waves originated from the excitation by artificial sources such as vibrators or explosions. That is why the frequencies of Micro-Tremors are lifted up to 20 Hz comparing with the frequencies in the methods of Passive Seismic Exploration.

10 Se ha observado la prevalencia de ciertas frecuencias en los espectros de microsismos debido a la presencia de hidrocarburos. Dangel et al. (2003) Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 10 The HMT frequency band is from 1.5 Hz to 4 Hz EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 State of the art In different (other) methods of analysis of the Hydrocarbon Micro-Tremors (HMT), the HMT frequency band is from 1.5 Hz to 4 Hz United Arab Emirates (UAE) UAE Switzerland

11 The frequency band is from 1.5 Hz to 5 Hz 11 Saenger E.H., Schmalholz S.M., Lambert M.-A., Nguyen T.T., Torres A., Metzger S., Habiger R.M., Müller T., Rentsch S. and Méndez-Hernández E., 2009, A passive seismic survey over a gas field: Analysis of low-frequency anomalies. Geophysics, 74, p. O29-O40.SaengerE.H., SchmalholzS.M.LambertM.-A.NguyenT.T.TorresMetzgerHabiger R.M.MüllerRentschMéndez-Hernández Case Study in México, Burgos gas/oil field SaengerSaenger et al., 2009 Hydrocarbons No hydrocarbons

12 12 Natural micro-tremor spectral response of oil and gas reservoir EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 Holzner, et al., 2005, 2006 Hydrocarbon Microtremor Analysis (HyMAS) The ever-present seismic background noise of the earth acts as the driving force for the generation of hydrocarbon indicating signals. The seismic background noise spectrum is modified in a different way when interacting with geological structures containing hydrocarbon filled pores compared with interaction with similar structures not containing hydrocarbons.

13 13 Selection of the appropriate portions of traces from CRP gathers, Application of rejection criteria for removing noisy records, Implementation of Fast Fourier Transform, Estimation of mean value of Amplitude Spectra in each frequency range, in function of the position of the receiver, --with the subsequent amplitude smoothing, as it shown here: before smoothing and after.. Processing flow of the Analysis of the spectrums of micro-tremors: EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 [0; 20 Hz] Before smoothing After smoothing In the method presented here, the micro-tremor anomalies lie in the frequency range from 0 Hz to 20 Hz.

14 14 Microtremors after excitation with a seismic vibrator Serdyukov and Kurlenya (2007) Serdyukov S.V., Kurlenya M.V., 2007, Seismic stimulation of oil reservoirs // Russian Geology and Geophysics. v. 48, №11, p. 959-966. [in Russian]. From 11 Hz to 16 Hz from 22 Hz to 30 Hz Hydrocarbon-microtremors’ frequencies after excitation by seismic vibrator Amplitude spectrum Frequency

15 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 15 After stimulation with vibrator, not only the frequency growth is observed, but also the intensity of hydrocarbon micro-tremors’ emission. 5 minutes after excitation Before excitation Amplitude spectrum Receiver coordinate along seismic line [m] Vedernikov et al. 2001 Hydrocarbon microtremors’ amplitudes: before and after excitation with vibrator

16 16 Vedernikov et al. 2001 5 minutes after excitation Before excitation Vedernikov G.V., Zharkov A.V., Maksimov L.A., 2001, Results on the analysis of the Earth hydrocarbon tremors: Geofizika. Special issue on 30 years of “Sibneftegeofizika”, p.96-98 [in Russian]. Stimulation experiment of hydrocarbon microtremors with vibrators

17 Tecnologías Innovadoras para la exploración y desarrollo de yacimientos no convencionales en México 17 Stimulation of hydrocarbon micro-tremors after vibrator (vibro-seisms) excitation Vedernikov et al. 2001 Vedernikov G.V., Zharkov A.V., Maksimov L.A., 2001, Results on the analysis of the Earth hydrocarbon tremors: Geofizika. Special issue on 30 years of “Sibneftegeofizika”, p.96-98 [in Russian]. [in Russian].

18 18 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 Method Frequency band of micro-tremors Updated method with its application to field data Physical reasons of micro-tremors

19 19 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 Long offsets and early times Additional part of seismogram is used for the analysis of micro-tremors The new approach: Long offsets and late times

20 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 20  To improve the method, we propose using the late-time portion of seismic traces, additionally to the earliest-time portion.  We consider that in the seismic records at large times of arrival (that is several seconds, for example 3.5 sec in this case), the artificial-wave energy has been attenuated to such a degree that the dominant response provides us pure natural micro-seismic response. This enables us separating natural hydrocarbon micro tremors from reflected waves…

21 21 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 Comparison Input data: The earliest-time portions of seismic traces Input data: The late-time portions of seismic traces The new approach

22 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 22 Amplitude-spectrum map of micro- tremors Zoomed fragment (b). Well Bh-1 Pair of intersected seismic profiles (W-E and N-S) Spectrum

23 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 23 Method Frequency band of micro-tremors Updated Method with application to field data Physical reasons of micro-tremors

24 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 24 Why hydrocarbon reservoirs have the micro-tremor-emission spectrum of low frequency? What is the physical reason of it?

25 Why the micro-fractures saturated with oil or gas cause the low-frequency micro-tremors’ emission ? And water-saturated fractures do not cause it... Why? 25

26 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 26 There were performed numerous efforts to understand the causes of this phenomenon of microseisms related to oil and gas. Nowadays there is no unique theory which perfectly explains all the aspects of this phenomenon. However in spite of absence of a unified theory, various methods of MicroTremor spectral analysis are rapidly developed for seismic exploration of oil and gas. The ever-present seismic background noise of the earth acts as the driving force for the generation of hydrocarbon indicating signals. The seismic background noise spectrum is modified in a different way when interacting with geological structures containing hydrocarbon filled pores compared with interaction with similar structures not containing hydrocarbons.

27 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 27 Current investigations which combine the macro scopic aspects of Krauklis wave* propagation, as well as the micro scopic poro- mechanical amplification mechanism, are expected to provide major steps towards the complete understanding of the occurrence of Hydrocarbon Microtremor signals (Holzner et al, 2005).Holzner ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (*) Korneev (2008, 2010, 2011), Korneev et al (2004, 2009, 2012) on Krauklis wave. R. Holzner R. Holzner, P. Eschle, H. Zürcher, M. Lambert, R. Graf, P. EschleH. ZürcherM. LambertR. Graf S. DangelS. Dangel and P.F. Meier, 2005,P.F. Meier Applying microtremor analysis to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs Applying microtremor analysis to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs First Break, V. 23, No 5, May 2005First BreakV. 23No 5, May 2005

28 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 28 Krauklis, P. V., 1962, About some low frequency oscillations of a liquid layer in elastic medium: Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika, 26, 1111–1115. Korneev, V.A., Goloshubin, G.M., Daley, T.M., and. Silin, D.B, 2004, Seismic low-frequency effects in monitoring fluid-saturated reservoirs. Geophysics, 69, 522-532. Korneev, V., 2008, Slow waves in fractures filled with viscous fluid: Geophysics, 73, no. 1, N1–N7. Korneev, V., 2010, Low-frequency fluid waves in fractures and pipes: Geophysics, 75, no. 6, N97–N107. Korneev, V., 2011, Krauklis wave in a stack of alternating fluid- elastic layers: Geophysics, 76, no. 6, N47–N53. Korneev, V., G. Goloshubin, B. Kashtan, A. Bakulin, V. Troyan, G. Maximov, L. Molotkov, M. Frehner, S. Shapiro, and R. Shigapov, 2012, Krauklis wave — Half a century after: 74th Annual International Conference and Exhibition, EAGE, Extended Abstracts, B008. Korneev, V. A., A. A. Ponomarenko, and M. Kashtan, 2009, Stoneley guided waves: What is missing in Biot’s theory?: Proceedings of the fourth Biot conference on poromechanics: DEStech Publications Inc., 706–711.

29 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 29 Lambert et al. (2013) consider a possible mechanism causing Hydrocarbon Microtremor signals, which can be understood within the framework of a poro-mechanical amplification mechanism driven by the ever present seismic background noise that resonantly enhances low frequency seismic signals due to the interaction of liquid hydrocarbons, and pore-rock material. The resulting oscillations are transmitted from the reservoir to the surface almost without attenuation or scattering losses due to the low frequency. Lambert M.-A., Saenger E.H., Quintal B., and Schmalholz S.M., 2013, Numerical simulation of ambient seismic wavefield modification caused by pore-fluid effects in an oil reservoir, GEOPHYSICS, 78, T41–T52.

30 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 30 Following Lambert et al (2013), poroelastic effects within an oil reservoir may be a plausible explanation for low-frequency ambient wavefield modifications observed at oil fields. Wave-induced fluid flow at the mesoscopic scale in an oil reservoir is a physical mechanism that can cause significant attenuation contrast to the surrounding rocks. As a physical consequence of this model, ambient wavefield modifications are generated by the reservoir. Above the oil-saturated reservoir

31 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 31 Lambert, M.-A., E. H. Saenger, B. Quintal, and S. M. Schmalholz, 2013, Numerical simulation of ambient seismic wavefield modification caused by pore-fluid effects in an oil reservoir: Geophysics, 78, no. 1, T41–T52. Lambert, M.-A., T. Nguyen, E. H. Saenger, and S. M. Schmalholz, 2011, Spectral analysis of ambient ground-motion—Noise reduction techniques and a methodology for mapping horizontal inhomogeneity: Journal of Applied Geophysics, 74, 100–113, doi: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2011.04.007. Artman, B., M. Duclos, B. Birkelo, F. Huguet, J. F. Dutzer, and R. Habiger, 2011, Low-frequency seismic survey at a gas storage reservoir: 73rd Annual Conference and Exhibition, EAGE, Extended Abstracts, P331. Riahi, N., B. Birkelo, and E. H. Saenger, 2011, A statistical strategy to analyzing passive seismic attributes: 73rd Annual Conference and Exhibition, EAGE, Extended Abstracts, P198.

32 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 32 Steiner, B., E. H. Saenger, and S. M. Schmalholz, 2008, Time reverse modeling of low-frequency microtremors: Application to hydrocarbon reservoir localization: Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L03307. van Mastrigt, P., and A. Al-Dulaijan, 2008, Seismic spectroscopy using amplified 3C geophones: 70th Annual Conference and Exhibition, EAGE, Extended Abstracts, B047. Witten, B., and B. Artman, 2011, Signal-to-noise estimates of timereverse images: Geophysics, 76, no. 2, MA1–MA10.

33 33 Kuznetsov, Dyblenko, Chirkin et al. 2007 Acoustic emission after stimulation by ultrasonic excitation in oil saturated rock and water- saturated rock Kuznetsov O.L., Dyblenko V.P., Chirkin I.A. et al, 2007, Specific features of geomechanical-stress accumulation and anomalous seismic-acoustic emission in oil and gas-saturated rocks : Geofizika, 6, 8-15 Water Oil

34 34 Acoustic emission stimulated by ultrasonic pulses Oil-saturated rocks Water sarurarted rocks Dry rocks 0 20 40 60 80 100 t [s] Time Energy E 0 2 4 6 8 10 Application of mechanical loading After stimulation II I III Kuznetsov, Dyblenko, Chirkin et al 2007 Stimulation by ultrasonic wave wave pulses pulses

35 Dr. Irek Fayzullin hypothesizes that the primary mechanism of hydrocarbon micro-tremor (HMT) is the “in-situ” effect of "disclosure-closing" of microcracks in the subsurface of the earth. The potential elastic energy of the micro-tremor emission is accumulated at the ends of each crack in the form of stress anomalies. Through this mechanism, the potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy, i.e.–into the micro-tremor emission; the maximum energy is released at the moment of crack closing. Every day, some of fractures are "active ", i.e. they are closing and disclosing to the state of unstable equilibrium. D'yakonov B.P., I.S. Fayzullin, 2009, Response of fractured (consisted of block units) media to seismic-acoustic excitations and/or natural microseisms. Part I. Evolution of cracks under variable manmade and natural loading: Geofizika, № 3, p. 5-11. (*) Fayzullin I.S., Kutsenko N.V., 2004, The feasibility of using the scattered waves for the study of fractured geomedium. Numerical simulation: Geofizika, № 5, p.5-9. 35

36 36 (a)– horizontal section (b) – vertical section During the micro-fracures’ growth, these micro-fractures are opening, and then they are closing in the subsequet stage of rock compaction, and this can be the main cause of microtremors. (D'yakonov and Fayzullin, 2009) Micro-tremors occur due to the fractures´ growth with its subsequent decrease in growth and partial closing. Thus the increase and decrease of fractures´ growth takes place due to in-situ temporal stress variations. That is in-situ stress-induced rock compaction and de-compaction variations, which can be considered as the main cause of micro-tremors. Kouznetsov, Chirkin, et al 2006 Seismic monitoring of the open-fracture variation in reservoir rocks due to Linisolar Tides.

37 Why the micro-fractures saturated with oil or gas cause the low-frequency micro-tremors’ emission ? And water-saturated fractures do not cause it... Why? 37

38 The process of the microtremors´ (MT) emission occurs constantly in the subsurface and it never attenuates. It is differentiated in space and time by the average energy, variance and frequency of events of the MT emission. In turn, these statistics parameters are dominantly determined by such factors as dynamic state of stress, in-situ geo-mechanical properties and the type of saturation fluid (gas, water, or oil) in microfractures. The fluid type effects to the MT-emission frequency, which is different due to different magnitude of fluid-penetration rate, that is different penetration ability for filtrating into the cavity of closing crack for each fluid (e.g. oil or water). Presence of fluid results in acceleration of the process of disclosure of fracture and its transition into unstable state. A speed of penetration of fluid in crack is determined by the phase-permeability coefficient. The higher is the phase-permeability coefficient of fluid, the more frequent is the act of microtremors´ emissions, and so the higher MT-emission frequency is observed. D'yakonov B.P., I.S. Fayzullin, 2009, Response of fractured (consisted of block units) media to seismic-acoustic excitations and/or natural microseisms. Part I. Evolution of cracks under variable manmade and natural loading: Geofizika, № 3, p. 5-11. 38

39 The coefficient of permeability of the fluid phase of water is larger than this coefficient of oil. And so the water opens and enters into the closed microcracks more quickly compared to the case of oil saturated cracks... Therefore, the maximum of microtremors’ spectrum over oilfields shifts towards more lower frequencies compared to the frequencies over water-filled cracks. That is, in other words, the water-saturated cracks make the cycle of opening -closing and making claps (while doing this) more frequently, in comparison with the oil-filled cracks. That is in contrast with water- filled cracks, the oil-filled cracks will clap less frequently (rarely). This can explain why oil reservoirs have low-frequency anomalies of the microtremor emission of lower frequency than that of water- saturated cracks. http://ts.sbras.ru/ru/Pages/articles.aspx?Nomer=1_10 D'yakonov and Fayzullin, 2009 39

40 After stimulation (excitation) by a vibrator, the so-called “Back- Scattered” seismic waves (also called as “Diffracted” waves) are generated, which are originally caused by populations (ensembles) of open fractures. Special data-processing sequence (method SLBO) is developed, in which this type of wave is separated; these are back- scattered waves, which are related to the micro-tremor emission of hydrocarbons (also known as hydrocarbon microtremor (HM)). A technology SLBO is developed, which provides reliable 3D imaging of the fractures’ spatial distribution in subsurface, as well as direct hydrocarbon indicator; the latter is a new development (namely the method “СЛОНГ-SLONG”(*). Spectral attributes estimated from these micro-tremors are related to the direct hydrocarbon indicators. Fayzullin I.S., A.V. Seregin, A.V. Volkov, 2013, On the connection of the energy of the scattered waves to the physical characteristics of rocks. Seismic side-scanning method (SLBO): Geofizika, № 4. Back-scattered waves 40

41 Fayzullin I.S., Chirkin I.A., 1998, Seismic-acoustic method for studying fractured rocks: Geoinformatika, № 3, p.24-27. Fayzullin I.S., Kutsenko N.V., 2004, The feasibility of using the scattered waves for the study of fractured geomedium. Numerical simulation: Geofizika, № 5, p.5-9. D'yakonov B.P., I.S. Fayzullin, 2009, Response of fractured (consisted of block units) media to seismic-acoustic excitations and/or natural microseisms. Part I. Evolution of cracks under variable manmade and natural loading: Geofizika, № 3, p. 5-11. Fayzullin I.S., B.P. D'yakonov, R.S. Khisamov, R.KH. Muslimov, N.V. Kutsenko, 2006, On the impact of seismic-acoustic excitation on flooded oil reservoirs: Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, № 3. Fayzullin I.S., A.V. Seregin, A.V. Volkov, 2013, On the connection of the energy of the scattered waves to physical characteristics of rocks. Seismic side-scanning method (SLBO): Geofizika, № 4. Literature 41

42 http://www.gradient-geo.com/m_phyisic.htm Resonance model of seismic waves between the ground surface and the oil reservoir Spectrum Birialtsev et al., 2006 Shabalin et al. 2013 Frequency Ground surface Oil reservoir Resonance of low-frequency (long -wavelength) P waves

43 Birialtsev E. V., Plotnikova I.N., Khabibulin I.R., Shabalin N.Y., 2006, The analysis of microseism spectrum for prospecting of oil reservoir in Republic Tatarstan, EAGE Conference, Saint Petersburg, Russia. Shabalin N.YA., Birialtsev E. V., Ryzhov V.YA., 2013, Passive methods in low-frequency seismic exploration– Myths and Realities. Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2 (44), p. 46-53. [in Russian]. Method of low frequency seismic surveys in oil and gas exploration 43

44 OIL Water Note the difference in the case of the layer with water saturation 44 Resonance model of seismic waves between the ground surface and the oil reservoir Birialtsev et al., 2006 Shabalin et al. 2013

45 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 45 A mechanism of condensation and evaporation of oil- droplets on the surface of the micro-crack cavity and/or gas bubbles in fluid infill of crack is developed by Kuznetsov et al., 2003. Kuznetsov O.L., Grafov B.M., Suntsov A.E., and Arutyunov S.L., 2003, ANCHAR technology: the method background. Spetsialniy vypusk “Tehnologii seysmorsvedki –II”, Geofizika, p. 103-107.

46 Tecnologías Innovadoras para la exploración y desarrollo de yacimientos no convencionales en México Holzner et al., 2009, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 14, 160-173. 46 Schematic representation of a simple bi-conical pore geometry which enables low frequency oscillations of the contained liquid along z-direction

47 Seismic waves propagation through solids exhibiting a resonance frequency. Rheological model for coupling between elastic deformation and fluid oscillations Modification of spectra 47 Frehner et al., 2009

48 oil -- May be electric resonant circuit formed by oil reservoir (the capacitor)? 48 Capacitor What is the physical reason of Hydrocarbon Micro-Tremors? Glikman hypothesis in the paper of Kulikov S.A., Gatiyatullin N.S., and Kulikova E.R

49 Sadovskiy M.A., Nikolaev A.V., Sadovskiy M.A., Nikolaev A.V., 1982, New methods in seismic exploration. Prospects for the research development. Vestnik of the USSR Academy of Sciences N1, p. 82-84 [in Russian]. Nersesov I.L., Kaazik P.B., Rahmatullin M.H., Tregub F.S., Nersesov I.L., Kaazik P.B., Rahmatullin M.H., Tregub F.S., 1990, On the opportunities for gas exploration from the amplitude spectral ratios of microseismic tremor. Doklady of the USSR Academy of Sciences, V.312, N4, p.1084-1086. [in Russian]. The first publications on the phenomenon of Hydrocarbon Micro- Tremors 49

50 50 Vedernikov G.V., Zharkov A.V., Maksimov L.A., 2001, Results on the analysis of the Earth hydrocarbon tremors: Geofizika. Special issue on 30 years of “Sibneftegeofizika”, p.96-98 [in Russian]. Vedernikov, G.V., Hogoev E.A., 2007, Exploración de yacimientos de hidrocarburos con las características micro-sísmicas desde datos sísmicos (con procesado de CDPs). Materiales del congreso científico internacional "Geo-Siberia 2007", Novosibirsk, Rusia, 25- 27 de Abril, 2007, p. 179-183 [en Ruso]. Vedernikov, G.V., Hogoev E.A., 2006, El refinamiento de los modelos de bloques de yacimientos de hidrocarburos usando las características de la emisión acústica de micro-sismos. Colección de materiales del Décimo Congreso Geofísico de EAGE en Tyumen, Rusia, 29 -30 de Noviembre, 2006, p. 17-22. [en Ruso] Vedernikov G.V. and Maksimov L.A., 2013, Tekhnologiya i opyt prognozirovaniya zalezhey UV po kharakteristikam mikroseysm. Pribory i Sistemy Razvedochnoy Geofiziki, 2 (44), p. 30 -36.[en Ruso] The method of Vedernikov

51 Kuznetsov O.L., Dyblenko V.P., Chirkin I.A. et al, 2007, Peculiar properties of the energy storage in geomechanical stress and the anomalous seismic-acoustic emission in the oil and gas-bearing rocks : Geofizika, 6, 8-15 Serdyukov S.V., Kurlenya M.V., 2007, Seismic stimulation of oil reservoirs // Russian Geology and Geophysics. v. 48, №11, p. 959-966. [in Russian]. 51 Literatura Acerca de Las señales de la emisión acústica (micro-tremores de hidrocarburos), después de la excitación con vibración, para núcleos saturados de petróleo (aceite) y saturados de agua : Micro-tremores después de excitación con un vibrador sísmico:

52 Arutyunov S.L., Grafov B.M. and Sirotinsky Y.V. 1998, ANChAR - an unique technology of direct hydrocarbon field exploration. Geoinformatics 98, p.12–15. Grafov B.M., Arutyunov S.L., Kazarinov V.Ye., Kuznetsov O.L., Sirotinskiy YU.V., Suntsov A.Ye., 1998, Analiz geoakusticheskogo izlucheniya neftegazovoy zalezhi pri ispol'zovanii tekhnologii ANCHAR, Geofizika, 5, 24-28. [in Russian]. Kuznetsov O.L., Arutyunov S.L., Vostrov L.L., 2000, Rossiyskaya infrazvukovaya tekhnologiya ANCHAR: unikal'naya praktika razvedki i osvoyeniya neftyanykh i gazovykh resursov. Tezisy dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy geofizicheskoy konferentsii, Sankt-Peterburg, p.183-184. [in Russian]. http://ts.sbras.ru/ru/Pages/articles.aspx?Nomer=1_10 The method ANCHAR (АНЧАР) 52

53 Arutyunov S.L., 1993 Arutyunov S.L., 1993, Pryamoy metod akusticheskoy nizkochastotnoy razvedki na neft' i gaz ( rezul'taty i perspektivy ). Sbornik Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii " Geofizika i sovremennyy mir“, M. 1993. [in Russian]. Arutyunov S.L., Loshkarev G.L., Grafov B.M., et al, 1995 Arutyunov S.L., Loshkarev G.L., Grafov B.M., et al, 1995, Sposob vibroseysmorazvedki pri poiske neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy : Patent RF № 2045079. [in Russian]. Arutyunov S.L., Davydov V.F., Kuznetsov O.L. et al, 1999, Arutyunov S.L., Davydov V.F., Kuznetsov O.L. et al, 1999, Yavleniye generatsii infrazvukovykh voln neftegazovoy zalezh'yu : Nauchnoye otkrytiye № 109. [in Russian]. 53 Low frequency methods of seismic exploration

54 54 Kouznetsov O. L., Mirzajanzade A. Kh., Shakhverdiev A. Kh, et al., 1999, Seismic and geochemical technologies for improving productive oil capacity of pay zones and monitoring of these technologies: Abstracts of 10th IOR EAGE Conference: Brighton, UK. Kouznetsov O. L., Mirzajanzade A. Kh., Shakhverdiev A. Kh, et al., 1999, Seismic and geochemical technologies for improving productive oil capacity of pay zones and monitoring of these technologies: Abstracts of 10th IOR EAGE Conference: Brighton, UK. Suntsov A. E., Aroutunov S. L., Karnaukhov S. M. et al., 2006, Suntsov A. E., Aroutunov S. L., Karnaukhov S. M. et al., 2006, Efficiency of Microseismic Infrasonic Prediction of Oil and Gas: EAGE-SEG-EAGO. International Conference &Exhibition, 16 -19 October, 2006: SaintPetersburg, Russia (P244). Suntsov A. E., Aroutunov S. L., Mekhnin A. M., et al., 2006, Suntsov A. E., Aroutunov S. L., Mekhnin A. M., et al., 2006, Passive InfraFrequency Microseismic Technology Experience and Problems of Practical Use: EAGE Workshop Passive Seismic: Exploration & Monitoring Applications, December 10 13, 2006, Dubai.

55 un método de Localizador Sísmico de los Epicentros de la Emisión Micro-Sísmica ( El metodo SLEC ) Un grupo especial de los métodos asociados con la emisión de microsismos de hidrocarburos incluye un método de Localizador Sísmico de los Epicentros de la Emisión Micro-Sísmica ( El metodo SLEC ) Kouznetsov O.L., I.A. Chirkin, A.V. Volkov, B.Y. Meltchouk, A.S. Vorobiev, A.S. Joukov, G.V. Rogotsky & K.Z. Sydykov, 2006a, Seismic Location of Emission Centers Applying Seismic Location of Emission Centers (Slec) to Monitoring the Production in Oil-and-Gas Fields. Passive Seismic: Exploration and Monitoring Applications Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 10 - 13 December 2006. A36. Kouznetsov O.L., I.A. Chirkin, Y.A. Kuryanov, A.S. Zhoukov, A.V. Volkov, Meltchouk B.Y, I.I. Bogatsky, G.A. Belova, 2006b, Seismic monitoring the variations of open fracturing of reservoir rocks due to Linisolar Tides. EAGE 68th Conference & Exhibition — Vienna, Austria, 12 - 15 June 2006, D035. The method SLEC Seismic Location of Emission Centers ) The method SLEC (Seismic Location of Emission Centers ) or in Russian СЛОЕ (SLOE). 55

56 56 Kouznetsov O.L., I.S. Faizullin, I.A. Chirkin, B.YU. Meltchouk, S.I. Slionkin and G.V. Kashirin, 2001, STUDY OF 3-D DISTRIBUTION OF GEOMEDIUM FRACTURING BY SIDE-VIEW SEISMIC LOCATION METHOD (SVSL), EAGE 63rd Conference & Technical Exhibition — Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 11 - 15 June 2001, Paper O- 11. Kouznetsov O.L., I.A. Chirkin, I.S. Faizullin, B.YU. Meltchouk, I.S. Dzhafarov, YU.A. Kuryanov, V.N. Nesterov, S.I. Slionkin, G.V. Kashirin, Z.KH. Mollaev and A.P. Kozub, 2002, IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION BY APPLYING 3D MAPPING OF OPEN FRACTURING BY THE SVSL METHOD, EAGE 64th Conference & Exhibition — Florence, Italy, 27 - 30 May 2002, Paper G-38. Kouznetsov O.L., I.A. Chirkin, I.S. Faizullin, A.S. Zhukov, N.V. Kutsenko, Y.A. Kuryanov, B.Y. Meltchouk, R.H. Muslimov, 2004a, REGULARITIES OF TIME-SPATIAL VARIATION OF FRACTURING IN PETROLEUM BASINS FROM SVSL DATA, EAGE 66th Conference & Exhibition — Paris, France, 7 - 10 June 2004, C037. Kouznetsov O.L., I.A. Chirkin, I.S. Faizullin, B.Y. Meltchouk, R.P. Mukhametzyanov, S.I. Slionkin, G.V. Kashirin, E.P. Sokolov, R.S. Khisamov, V.S. Parasyna, S.M. Karnaukhov, S.I. Ivanov, YU.A. Kuryanov, 2004b, OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING THE SVSL DATA ON OPEN FRACTURING, EAGE 66th Conference & Exhibition — Paris, France, 7 - 10 June 2004. C045. Kouznetsov O.L., I.A. Chirkin, B.Y. Meltchouk, S.I. Slionkin, Y.A. Kuryanov, G.V. Kashirin, A.S. Zhukov, A.V. Volkov, 2005, SIDE-VIEW SEISMIC LOCATION METHOD TO STUDY FRACTURING OF RESERVOIRS USING SCATTERED WAVES, EAGE 67th Conference & Exhibition — Madrid, Spain, 13 - 16 June 2005. G046. Kouznetsov O.L., I.A. Chirkine, A.V. Volkov, B.Y. Meltchouk, A.S. Vorobiev, A.S. Joukov, G.V. Rogotsky & K.Z. Sydykov, 2006a, Applying Seismic Location of Emission Centers (Slec) to Monitor the Production in Oil- and-Gas Fields. Passive Seismic: Exploration and Monitoring Applications Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 10 - 13 December 2006. A36. Kouznetsov O.L., I.A. Chirkin, Y.A. Kuryanov, A.S. Joukov, A.V. Volkov, Meltchouk B.Y, I.I. Bogatsky, G.A. Belova, 2006b, Seismic monitoring the variations of open fracturing of reservoir rocks due to Linisolar Tides. EAGE 68th Conference & Exhibition — Vienna, Austria, 12 - 15 June 2006, D035. The method SVSL Side View Seismic Locator) The method SVSL (Side View Seismic Locator) or in Russian СЛБО (SLBO).

57 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 57 A passive low-frequency seismic experiment in the Albertine Graben, Uganda A passive low-frequency seismic experiment in the Albertine Graben, Uganda Authors: F. Martini, I. Lokmer, K. Jonsdottir, L. De Barros, M. Möllhoff, C.J. Bean,F. MartiniI. LokmerK. JonsdottirL. De BarrosM. MöllhoffC.J. Bean F. Hauser, J. Doherty, C. Ryan and J. MonganF. HauserJ. DohertyC. RyanJ. Mongan Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting Geophysical Prospecting Issue: Vol 61, No sup1, June 2013, pp. 39 – 61Vol 61No sup1, June 2013 Low-frequency passive seismic experiments in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: implications for hydrocarbon detection Low-frequency passive seismic experiments in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: implications for hydrocarbon detection Authors: M.Y. Ali, K.A. Berteussen, J. Small and B. BarkatM.Y. AliK.A. BerteussenJ. SmallB. Barkat Journal name: Geophysical Prospecting Geophysical Prospecting Issue: Vol 58, No 5, September 2010, pp. 875 – 899Vol 58No 5, September 2010 Low-frequency microtremor anomalies at an oil and gas field in Voitsdorf, Austria Low-frequency microtremor anomalies at an oil and gas field in Voitsdorf, Austria Authors: Marc-André Lambert, Stefan M. Schmalholz, Erik H. Saenger andMarc-André Lambert Stefan M. Schmalholz Erik H. Saenger Brian SteinerBrian Steiner Journal name: Geophysical ProspectingGeophysical Prospecting Issue: Vol 57, No 3, May 2009, pp. 393 – 411Vol 57No 3, May 2009

58 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 58 Recent developments in low frequency spectral analysis of passive seismic data Recent developments in low frequency spectral analysis of passive seismic data Author: D. WalkerD. Walker First Break Issue: Vol 26, No 2, February 2008Vol 26No 2, February 2008 Applying microtremor analysis to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs Applying microtremor analysis to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs Authors: R. Holzner, P. Eschle, H. Zürcher, M. Lambert, R. Graf, R. HolznerP. EschleH. ZürcherM. LambertR. Graf S. DangelS. Dangel and P.F. MeierP.F. Meier First Break Issue: Vol 23, No 5, May 2005Vol 23No 5, May 2005

59 ® 59 EAGE – Amsterdam – 19 of June 2014 Thank you tichqvoa@yahoo.com http://chichinina.rusiamexico.com


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