Presentation on theme: "By Zhi Wei & John. Substance which are required in small quantity for normal body function e.g. minerals & vitamins. Required ﹤ 0.005% of body weight."— Presentation transcript:
Substance which are required in small quantity for normal body function e.g. minerals & vitamins. Required ﹤ 0.005% of body weight Do NOT produce energy
Very small amount of inorganic ions required for the function of the body Used for STRONG bones and teeth e.g. Ca, Mg & P; formation of hormones, enzymes; and maintaining of fluid levels.
Organic compounds required for metabolism, to protect health and for proper growth in children. Vitamins generally are catalysis, which combines with proteins to create enzymes
Various vitamins are not chemically related and most differ in their structures and physiological action Fat soluble vitamins (e.g. A, D, E & K) ◦ Contain Long hydrocarbon groups Water soluble vitamins (e.g. B & C) ◦ Contain highly polar OH groups
Conformers: ◦ they are isomers which differ only in rotation around a single bond. Vitamin A ◦ Long carbon chain, one OH group and alternate double and single bonds ◦ Fat soluble ◦ light sensitive due to many conjugated double bonds
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) ◦ Five-membered ring containing an O atom; four OH groups
Substance that are required in relatively large amounts ( ﹥ 0.005% of body weight) E.g. proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals (Na, Mg, K, ca, P, S and Cl) Macronutrients such as proteins, fats and carbohydrates produce energy
Malnutrition: the insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients. Income disparities, lack of economic opportunities and poor eating habits and so on
Micronutrientsaffect Iron (Fe)aneamia (blood disorder) Iodine (I) goitre (enlarge of thyroid gland) Retinol (vitamin A) Causes dry eyes; night blindness Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Scurvy (bleeding lesions on the legs) Calciferol (vitamin D)Softening of bones
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