Hydrophobic vs Hydrophilic Hydrophilic (attracted to water) Hydrophobic (not attracted to water but are attracted to other hydrophobic tails) They have a hydrophilic phosphate head and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Cell membranes are made up of a double layer of these phospholipid molecules. The phospholipid bilayer makes the membrane very stable but also allows flexibility. The phospholipid in the membrane are in a fluid state which allows the cell to change it’s shape easily.
Osmotic Pressure The pressure of water moving across a membranes cause by a concentration gradient.
Turgor Pressure Is a hydrostatic pressure due to a plant cell being placed in a hypotonic solution. Is pressure on inside of a cell against the cell wall. Only in plant cells
What is Plasmolysis? The Shrinking of cell membrane from cell wall in a plant or bacterial cell, caused by loss of water through osmosis. from Greek lusis, a loosening.
What is Crenation? Crenation is the contraction of a cell after exposure to a hypertonic solution, due to the loss of water through osmosis.hypertonic solutionosmosis Crenation occurs because in a hypertonic environment, osmosis.osmosis As a result the cell shrinks and forms abnormal notchings around its edges.
What is cytolysis? Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to move into the cell.lysisosmotic imbalance It occurs in a hypotonic environment.hypotonic Where water moves into the cell by osmosis where the volume exceeds the membrane's capacity and the cell bursts.osmosis The presence of a cell wall prevents the membrane from bursting, so cytolysis only occurs in animal and protozoa cells which do not have cell walls.cell wallanimalprotozoa
Active or Passive Transport Endocytosis Diffusion Exocytosis Osmosis Oxygen Carbon dioxide Sugar Water Pinocytosis Phagocytosis