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Proprietary Information DEVELOPMENTS IN THERMOELECTRIC POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Marlow Industries, Inc. 1 Advanced Concepts in Semiconductor Materials.

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Presentation on theme: "Proprietary Information DEVELOPMENTS IN THERMOELECTRIC POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Marlow Industries, Inc. 1 Advanced Concepts in Semiconductor Materials."— Presentation transcript:

1 Proprietary Information DEVELOPMENTS IN THERMOELECTRIC POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Marlow Industries, Inc. 1 Advanced Concepts in Semiconductor Materials and Devices for Energy Conversion December 7 th and 8 th Sheraton Washington North Beltsville, Maryland Jim Bierschenk

2 Proprietary Information II-VI named for their material origin in the compounds listed under II and VI columns on the periodic table: Zn, Cd, S, Se, and Te. Marlow Industries, Inc. a subsidiary of II-VI Incorporated 2 Thermoelectric quality and performance at industry competitive prices. Headquarters: Dallas, TX (USA) Industry: Thermoelectric Solutions Structure: Operating Subsidiary Founded: 1973 Employees 500+ About Marlow Industries, Inc. About II-VI Incorporated Manufacturing: Dallas, Vietnam Headquarters: Saxonburg, PA (USA) Industry: Materials Structure: Public/(NASDAQ) IIVI Founded: 1971 Employees >6000 FY10 Revenue $345M Marlow Industries- Dallas, TX Center of Technical Excellence

3 Proprietary Information Marlow Vertical Integration TEC Assembly Sub- System Assembly

4 Proprietary Information TE Cooling Markets and Applications Telecommunications  Long Haul Laser Transmitters and Pump Lasers  Short and Mid Range Laser Transmitters/Receivers Medical  Thermal Cyclers for Polymerase Chain Reactions  Liquid and air refrigerated compartments for blood analyzers Industrial  Heated & Cooled automotive car seats  Point-of-sale boxes/small refrigerators  Semiconductor processing equipment Consumer  Water chillers, wine chillers, refrigerators  Personal cooling – bedding, chairs, etc.  Gaming Applications Defense, Space & Photonics  Thermal Night Sights  Range Finders and Target Designators  FLIR Calibration Systems

5 Proprietary Information Marlow TE Power Gen Energy Harvesting Direct Power Gen Waste Heat Recovery Co- Generation TE Cooling vs. Power Generation 5 Marlow TE Cooling DefenseSpaceTelecomMedicalIndustrialAutomotiveConsumer Many diverse markets/applications Extensive product customization Flexible manufacturing capability Thermal & mechanical design capability Highest performing suite of TE materials Material research driven by waste heat recovery applications Many diverse markets/applications Extensive product customization Flexible manufacturing capability Thermal & mechanical design capability High performance generator materials

6 Proprietary Information 66 TE Power Generation Application Areas Direct Power Generation Burn a hydrocarbon fuel to produce heat – convert heat to electrical using TE Generator Battery Replace Technology Unattended Ground Sensors Soldier power Robot/UAV power sources Battery Chargers Auxiliary Power Units Co-Generation Heat produced from burning high energy density fuel. Self-powered military equipment Tent heaters Cooking equipment (ration tray heaters, griddles) Cleaner burning 3 rd world cook stoves Self powered fans for wood stoves and mosquito catchers Energy Harvesting Microwatt to low milliwatt power to perpetually power wireless sensors Battlefield sensors Engine health monitoring (temperature, vibration, etc) Structural health monitoring (aircraft, building, bridges, etc) HVAC controls Waste Heat Recovery Convert heated waste exhaust streams to electric power for improve efficiency Automotive WHR Improve fuel economy & reduce CO2 emissions Minimize Fuel Consumption on stationary generators Convert Industrial Waste Heat to Electricity

7 Proprietary Information  Marlow’s power generation focus is to develop: –Volume production processes for new high temperature materials –Volume production device assembly processes –Single and multistage (cascade capability) –Device and system level thermal and mechanical modeling –Material, device and subsystem test capability –Understand long term reliability  Focus on both low temperature (Bi 2 Te 3 ) and high temperature applications Marlow Power Generation 7

8 Proprietary Information  Evolution of low power sensors, transmitters and power management electronics have made TE energy harvesting practical Energy Harvesting – Why Now? 8 Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging)

9 Proprietary Information Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting 9 R Load

10 Proprietary Information The optimal TEG design for an energy harvesting application:  Thermally matches the combined hot and cold side thermal resistances  Electrically matches the electrical load  Has sufficient couples to provide the minimum threshold voltage for the step-up electronics at the desired source-to-ambient ΔT Optimal TEG Design 10

11 Proprietary Information Interdependence of Thermal and Electrical 11 The electrical load resistance impacts the thermal characteristics of the TEG

12 Proprietary Information Energy Harvester TEG Transition Prior to low threshold voltage electronics, low ΔT energy harvesting required: TEGs with hundreds of couples (V is proportional to # couples and ΔT) High thermal resistance (i.e. large TE element aspect ratios) Today, with threshold voltages as low as 20 mV, low cost, traditional small TE devices can be used Examples Marlow Energy Harvesting Devices, many of which were co-developed with Sandia National Lab Traditional small TE Cooler Can Be used As Energy Harvesting TEG

13 Proprietary Information Marlow High Temperature TEG Strategy  Enable a diverse array of thermoelectric power generation applications and markets by developing: –Volume production capability of TE generator devices that can operate to 500 C –Volume production capability for a suite of mid range TE materials –Accurate thermal and mechanical modeling of TEG modules and systems –Test capabilities for materials, devices and subsystems –Quantified reliability 13

14 Proprietary Information Power Generation Materials N Type Materials P Type Materials Bi2Te3  What power generation materials does Marlow use? –“High Temp” Bi 2 Te 3 (both crystalline and MAM formats) –“PbTe” P and N, TAGS –P and N Skutterudites  Internal and University funded research on other new materials

15 Proprietary Information Functionally Graded Materials – Elements made of single alloy with graded composition and/or doping Segmentation – Elements made of 2+ alloys joined with metal layers that prevent interaction Cascading – Multistage module with single P and N materials in each stage Managing the ZT Envelope capability preferred

16 Proprietary Information “Traditional” high volume TE module assembly processes used for TE Generator assembly  Single & cascade TE devices  Brazes used instead of solder  Screen print braze paste w/ flux  Wet paste 1-time reflow in CAB Furnace  “Segmented” top ceramic to reduce thermal stresses (i.e. diced into smaller ceramic pieces after assembly)  Simple tools, minimal capital equipment Prototype 50 mm square PbTe Module  Common device assembly process for both PbTe and Skutterudite materials (different barrier) Marlow CAB Furnace for Braze Assembly

17 Proprietary Information 17 Prototype TE Generators 2 stage Skutterudite/Bi 2 Te 3 modules 50 mm square Skutterudite modules 2 stage PbTe/Bi 2 Te 3 modules 25 mm square PbTe modules

18 Proprietary Information  In-house TEG efficiency tester –Vacuum or inert atmosphere –500 C capability –Up to 40 mm cross sections –Unique device calibration to quantify heat losses –Material Seebeck and resistivity tests to 500 C  Production test capabilities using Harman technique module tester at elevated temperatures  Cycling and constant temperature aging test stand in development TE Device Test Development 18

19 Proprietary Information Device Level Modeling  Equations governing thermoelectric device behavior (Ioffe, Goldsmid, etc) were derived assuming constant TE material properties –For improved accuracy, these equations are typically used with temperature dependent properties –For cooling, the equations lose accuracy at large ΔT  These fundamental equations were re-derived without the underlying assumption of constant material properties –Provides more accurate modeling of TE coolers and power generators with large ΔTs –Validated with experiment and with full 3D thermoelectric simulations in ANSYS 19

20 Proprietary Information Thermoelectric System Modeling 20  Model Validation –System test on engine dyno for automotive waste heat recovery system –Output matches Marlow system model prediction

21 Proprietary Information DOE CRADA Oak Ridge National Lab/Marlow  Objective: “To evaluate materials and devices for waste-heat recovery applications in automotive and heavy vehicle applications up to 500°C.“  Project Goals: –Thermoelectric and mechanical material properties for TE material –Thermal and mechanical material properties for any supporting material –Develop ANSYS models to evaluate TE devices in automotive applications –Develop life prediction models –Experimental verification of models

22 Proprietary Information Power Generation Benefits from Improved in Bi 2 Te 3  High ZT Inorganic Colloidal Nanocrystal thermoelectric material –Bulk material format addresses a wide range of heat flux applications –Phonon blocking to reduce lattice thermal conductivity –Quantum confinement enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient –Scalable, low cost material fabrication process Device format and design that minimizes all thermal and electrical losses –High voltage, low current operation enabled by Build- in-Place TEC assembly process –Low electrical contact resistance on a bulk TE material High ZT material  High ZT devices Program: Active Cooling Module (ACM) Program Mgr: Avi Bar-Cohen

23 Proprietary Information THANK YOU! Marlow Industries, Inc Vista Park Road Dallas, TX Jim Bierschenk


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