Presentation on theme: "Michael Ladisch + Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering Agricultural and Biological Engineering Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Purdue."— Presentation transcript:
Michael Ladisch + Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering Agricultural and Biological Engineering Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907-2022 Corn Utilization New Technology for New Uses + Chief Technology Officer, Mascoma Corporation
Acknowledgements Indiana Corn Marketing Council Ryan West National Corn Growers Association Gary Niemeyer Mascoma Corporation Frank Agbogbo, Kevin Wenger Purdue University Youngmi Kim, Eduardo Ximenes, Nathan Mosier
US Agricultural Productivity Output Input Total Factor Productivity 1948 1978 2008 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Source: USDA ERS Indices 1948 = 1
1.65 Bn Bu NCGA, 2012 World of Corn Report US Corn Usage by Segment, 2011 Crop value of $ 76.6 Billion How do we add more value? Examples (from CUTC 2012) Biotechnology Enzyme technology Bioprocessing Mimetics Chemical Building Blocks better corn, better uses & biorefineries
Hydrolysis Starch Glucose Enzymes Sugars are starting feedstock for biochemical and chemical conversion
6 INTRODUCTION TO MGT YEAST Yeast Wet cake Syrup Evaporator Dryer Centrifuge Distillation Jet cooker Liquefaction Slurry Fermentation Backset Ground corn CO2 Fuel Ethanol Distillers dried grains (DDGS) Thin stillage Whole stillage Alpha-amylase Gluco-amylase (GA) MGT X Preview from CUTC presentation of Frank Agbogbo, Mascoma
7 INTRODUCTION TO MGT YEAST Polymeric Sugars Mascoma CBP Soluble Sugars Yeast Yeast-Secreted Enzymes Added Enzyme EthanolChemicalsFuels Yeast makes its own glucoamylase (GA) as it grows This leads to less sugar stress on the yeast during fermentation Preview from CUTC presentation of Frank Agbogbo, Mascoma
Glucose Converted to Levulinic Acid (Precursor for Polymers) via chemical catalysis Bozell and Petersen, 2010 Glucose Levulinic Precursors, chemical building blocks
Platform Chemicals from Sugars Bozell and Petersen, 2010 Sugar derived platform chemicals include Hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) Furfural Levulinic acid γ-valerolactone Catalytic conversion to alkanes, and to precursor molecules for use in production of polymers, lubricants, and herbicides. Catalytic conversion uses high concentrations of glucose Chemical building blocks Hydrocarbon fuels
Achieving high glucose concentrations Pre-process corn kernels into solid fractions Starch Germ (oil) Pericarp (fiber) Separate by gravity to concentrate feedstocks Then hydrolyze and process into value added components Use enzyme science and engineering derived from biomass conversion research.
Untreated Corn Kernels Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University
Enzyme Treated Corn Kernels Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University
Germs and Starch in Slurry Germ floating on topStarch precipitated at bottom Work is just beginning Preview from CUTC poster of Youngmi Kim, Purdue University
Concept of a Biomimetic Catalyst for Chemical Catalysis downsizing MW 55kD active site Cellulolytic Enzyme downsizing Thousands Daltons active site Cellulolytic EnzymeBiomimetic Catalyst Active site only; residue carboxylate pair retained Hundred Daltons Superior Catalysis with minimal sugar degradation Preview from CUTC presentation of Nate Mosier, Purdue University
Partnerships Chemical enterprise (exports of $ 86.9 billion, 2011). Possible partnerships based on 1. discovery of new processes based on sugars 2. research on utilization of renewable resources 3. business models based on products from agricultural (particularly cellulosic) commodities US Agriculture (net balance of trade of $43 billion, 2011; projected $24 billion in 2012) 1. design / grow crops for value-add chemicals 2. continue improvements in productivity 3. business models for year round supply 4. Industrial fermentation capacities CCR, 2012
New technology enhances margins From 1 bushel of corn (15% MC, 75% starch) Assumptions: Glucose yield: 100% from starch; Enzyme: 0.2% w/w of inlet solid; Enzyme cost: $15/lb; Water: $0.07/gal; Corn: $6.9/bushel; Ethanol: $2.5/gal; DDGS: $180/ton; Levulinic acid: $5/lb; Levulinic acid yield from hexose sugar: 50% Corn to ethanol Corn to levulinic acid 4 83.
Economic Synergies Agriculture is market for: Seeds Fertilizers Pesticides / herbicides Agriculture provides hedge for some feedstocks needed by chemical enterprise Oil Carbohydrates, chemical feedstocks Cellulosics Fermentation substrates Translation of science from discovery to commercial scale is critical: requires sustained research and development CCR, 2012
Conclusions New technology for value-added products from corn opens a new frontier. Utilize biotechnology, chemical catalysis and the chemical enterprise. New tools make the difference. Resources are available to produce both food and chemicals through corn: 1. Land 2. Seeds. 3. Productivity Combined impact could be to reduce feedstock risk for chemical industry, produce biofuels, and reduce petroleum imports.