Presentation on theme: "Petroleum and Natural Gas"— Presentation transcript:
1 Petroleum and Natural Gas Maddie WahlbergElodie CascaranoMaya BassRaina Kenigsberg
2 HydrocarbonHydrocarbon is a molecule composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons can be known as impure or pure.Impure hydrocarbons contain not only hydrogen and carbon atoms but also nitrogen or sulfur. While pure hydrocarbons are only composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms.The arrangement and number of their bonds and their atoms create many different varieties of hydrocarbons.There are significant amounts of energy that can be released when burned in the bonds of hydrocarbons.
4 Fossil FuelsFossil fuels are made of decaying dead plants and animals, which are primarily hydrocarbon molecules.Fossil fuels are not considered a renewable resource because the process of decomposition takes millions of years.There are two main kinds of hydrocarbon fossil fuels.Liquid fuels, known as petroleum, are one form of hydrocarbon fossil fuels.Natural gas is the other main form of hydrocarbon fossil fuels.
5 Finding Oil and Natural Gas Oil and natural gas are found in the areas of rock layers under ground.Companies drill through the earth to the deposits deep below the surface.In the past few decades, advancements in technology have allowed us to drill from a site up to five miles away from the source. In the past, we were forced to drill directly over the supply.Oil and natural gas are then pumped to the surface through pipelines by oil rigs.
7 Extracting Oil and Natural Gas Pressure is needed to push the fluids to the surface once the source has been located and drilling is complete.To create the necessary pressure, natural gas can be pumped underground, below the oil so that when the gas expands, the force pushes the oil to the surface.Another technique for creating pressure is injecting water, previously separated from the oil during the drilling process, back into the oil-bearing formation to push more oil above ground.Steam heat is another method for creating the pressure needed.
9 RefiningBefore hydrocarbons are put on the market, they must be refined.In their natural form, oil and natural gas must be processed to remove impurities and make them more effective, this is refining.There are three main methods of refining: Separation, Conversion and Combining/Upgrading.Separation – This process heats the oil, gradually evaporating before condensing the vapor.Conversion – This process uses chemicals to turn diesel fuel into gasoline.
10 RefiningCombining/Upgrading – This process mixes both processed and unprocessed products to produce gasoline with different octane ratings.Refining creates many products from crude oil such as:Petroleum gas – heating, cooking, making plasticsGasoline – motor fuelKerosene – fuel for jet enginesGas oil – diesel fuel and heating oilLubricating oil – motor oil and greaseHeavy gas – industrial fuelResiduals – asphalt, tar, waxes
12 ElectricityNatural gas is burned to create steam from boiling water. This steam is then forced through impeller turbines which spin generator coils that produce electricity.Converting oil into electricity is accomplished using three technologies:Conventional Steam – oil is burned to heat water, creating steam that is used to create electricityCombustion Turbine – hot exhaust gases are produced when oil is burned under pressure which spin a turbine to create electricity.Combined-Cycle Technology – The first two methods are combined to create electricity. First the combustion turbine method is used and then the conventional steam method is used to drive a second turbine.
13 Environmental Concerns Hydrocarbons have been a primary source of fuel but the environmental concerns have increased.There are serious pollution problems in some areas due to the smoke and soot created from their combustion.High levels of CO2 are produced from hydrocarbons. This causes heat to be trapped in the atmosphere, changing the earth’s climate by raising global temperatures.
15 Advantages & Disadvantages Natural Gas AdvantagesNatural Gas DisadvantagesMore environmentally friendlyDamaging to ecosystemCheaper than gasolineNon-renewable resourceSafely stored and burnedHighly flammableEasily transportedCostly transportationMany natural resources still under utilizedMost common cause of Carbon Monoxide deaths
16 Advantages & Disadvantages Oil AdvantagesOil DisadvantagesGood AvailabilityNon-renewable, fast depletingVery efficientOil spillsEasily distributedDifficult to recycleInexpensivePrice is risingEasily combustibleReleases Carbon Dioxide
17 Top 5 Oil Reserves in the World Country (as of 2010)259.9Saudi Arabia175.2Canada137.6Iran115.0Iraq101.5Kuwait19.214. United StatesReserves (billion barrels)
18 Top 5 Natural Gas Reserves Country (as of 2010)Reserves (Trillion Cubic Feet)Percent of World TotalRussia1680.026.9%Iran991.615.9%Qatar891.914.3%Saudi Arabia258.54.1%United States237.73.8%
19 ShaleShale – a group of fine-grained, laminated sedimentary rocks consisting of clay-sized particles and silt.Roughly 60% of sedimentary rock consists of shale.Although we currently extract large amounts of fossil fuels, much remains trapped in the shale.Drilling companies have made advances in recovering methods of the oil and natural gas trapped in the tiny pores of shale.This discovery could one day make shale a realistic source of fuel.
21 Supply ConcernsOur country’s dependence on fossil fuels forces us to protect foreign sources of oil. During the Persian Gulf War, U.S. troops were sent to guard against a possible cutoff of our supply. Billions of dollars were spent in that war and many lives were lost.The goal of the Chinese government is to develop their country to a level where every household has a car. More than the world’s total oil production would be required in order to fuel them all. If this were to happen, the prices would soar on this limited resource.