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Introduction to Organic Chem. Part 1 Intro to Hydrocarbons & Naming Rules.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Organic Chem. Part 1 Intro to Hydrocarbons & Naming Rules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Organic Chem. Part 1 Intro to Hydrocarbons & Naming Rules

2 Organic Chemistry: The study of carbon containing compounds

3 -Most of the compounds that make up your body contain carbon. -Carbon containing compounds are often called “organic” compounds. Carbon Compounds and Biomolecules A trans-fatty acid

4 Carbon: The backbone of life Living organisms are made up mostly of molecules based on carbon. Thus the term “carbon- based life forms”.

5 Carbon: The backbone of life Americans, on average, consume 140 lbs of sugar per year, much of it in the form of fructose (High Fructose Corn Syrup), Fructose, a hexose sugar

6 Carbon: The backbone of life Cellulose, found in plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound on Earth

7 Carbon bonding The small atomic size of carbon makes the bonds very strong (notice the close proximity of the electrons to the protons) Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex molecules

8 Carbon Fiber High strength, but very low weight fiber. Used in sports and military applications

9 Carbon Allotropes When an element can take on different shapes, functions, or structures because of different bonding arrangements of the atoms, these are called allotropes. Diamonds, graphite, and nanotubes are all allotropes of carbon.

10 Nanotubes SUPER high strength-to- weight ratio

11 Hydrocarbons

12 Hydrocarbon Videos 1.How oil is “made” 1. 2.Fracking, the untold story 1. 3.Hydrocarbon Cracking 1. 4.Fractional Distillation 1.

13 Hydrocarbons are the simplest Organic Molecules Hydrocarbons are chains of Carbon surrounded by Hydrogen.


15 Methane, propane, etc. Gasoline, etc. Kerosene, etc. Diesel, etc. Methane, propane, etc.


17 Hydrocarbons are grouped into 3 classes 1.Alkanes – Only single bonds connecting the carbon atoms in the chain Octane C 8 H 12

18 Hydrocarbons are grouped into 3 classes 2. Alkenes – Contain at least one double bond

19 Hydrocarbons are grouped into 3 classes 3. Alkynes – Contain at least one triple bond

20 Examples Alkynes

21 Hydrocarbon skeletal structure Sometimes, in an effort to simplify things, we only show the “skeletal structure” of an organic molecule Where are the Hydrogen’s??? Butane skeletal structure

22 Hydrocarbon skeletal structure When you see a naked organic skeleton, the “joints” represent carbon atoms, and the Hydrogen atoms are left out. Carbon Octane skeletal structure

23 Hydrocarbon skeletal structure Octane skeletal structure The lines between the joints represent the bonds between the atoms. In this case, they are all single bonds, so this is an alkane Bonds

24 What molecule do each of these skeletons represent? Propene Hexyne Decane

25 Different Types of molecular models Molecules can be modeled in several different ways: – Chemical Formula – Structural Formula – Skeletal Structure – Space-filling Model

26 Propane modeled 5 separate ways propane: space-filling model propane: skeletal structure C 3 H 8 propane: chemical formula

27 Introduction to Hydrocarbon Nomenclature (naming rules)



30 Hydrocarbon general naming formulas C n H 2n+2 = alkane C n H 2n = alkene C n H 2n-2 = alkyne

31 Try it out: Convert the following… 1) C 3 H 8 ____________ 2) Propyne __________ 3) C 4 H 8 ____________ 4) pentene __________ 5) C 6 H 10 ____________ 6) hexane __________

32 Hydrocarbons can form rings ***Note that the general formula doesn’t work now because of the ring structure. You must look at the bond lines*** C 5 H 10 C 6 H 12 C6H6C6H6

33 When a hydrocarbon forms a ring, we use the term “cyclo” to denote it Cyclopentane Cyclohexene

34 Benzene is the most important ring compound Benzene

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