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Organic Chemistry Chemistry 2013-2014.  Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds. 

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Chemistry 2013-2014.  Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds. "— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry Chemistry

2  Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds.  Carbon can form single, double and triple bonds. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds

3  Saturated hydrocarbons contain no double or triple bonds.  Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double and/or triple bonds.  Can be straight or branched.  Boiling point increases as number of carbon atoms increases. A hydrocarbon is a compound that only contains hydrogen and carbon atoms.

4  Definition/Functional group: single bonds only; saturated; nonpolar  Suffix: -ane  Examples  MethaneEthane Hydrocarbons: Alkanes

5  Definition/Functional group: at least one double bond; unsaturated; nonpolar  Suffix: -ene  Example: ethene, C 2 H 4 Hydrocarbons: Alkenes

6  Definition/Functional group: at least one triple bond; unsaturated; nonpolar  Suffix: -yne  Examples  Ethyne, C 2 H 2 Butyne, C 4 H 6 Hydrocarbons: Alkynes

7  Definition/Functional group: contain at least one benzene ring, often with other groups added (“substituted” for hydrogen). Benzene exists as a resonance structure. It is also a carcinogen.  Prefix: Benz-  Examples  Benzene Benzaldehyde Benzene Rings

8  Definition/Functional group: contain an –OH group, called a “hydroxyl” group.  Suffix: -ol  Examples  MethanolEthanolPropanol Alcohols Note: not all alcohols are safe to drink (ethanol is the “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

9  Definition/Functional group: contain an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom at the end of a hydrocarbon chain.  Suffix: -anal  Examples: Methanal, CH 2 OEthanal, C 2 H 4 O Aldehydes

10  Definition/Functional group: contain an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom NOT at the end of a hydrocarbon chain.  Suffix: -none  Examples  Propanone, C 3 H 6 O Ketones

11  Definition/Functional group: a hydrocarbon chain in which one of the links is an oxygen atom, bonded to a carbon atom on either side.  Suffix: -ether  Examples Ethers

12  Definition/Functional group: a hydrocarbon where one carbon atom is bonded to another carbon and two oxygen atoms, one through a single bond and one through a double bond. That sounds pretty confusing, but esters are easy to recognize. They all have the same basic shape as the picture above, where the letter “R” means carbon atoms or other “organic” groups.  Suffix: -ate  Examples Esters

13  Definition/Functional group: these are alkanes that are cyclic, meaning that the ends are connected to form a regular geometric shape. Ex. triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon, etc. Benzene is not a cyclic alkane due to its double bonds and resonance.  Prefix: Cyclo-  Examples: Cyclopropane, C 3 H 6 Cyclobutane, C 4 H 8 Cyclic Alkanes

14  We’re going to focus on naming the simplest kinds of organic molecules—alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, and aldehydes.  However, you will have to be able to classify the names and structures of each type of organic molecule in these notes, or to pick a name from a list that most closely fits a structure. Nomenclature

15 Prefixes (stand for number of carbon atoms in chain): Number of Carbon Atoms Prefix Number of Carbon Atoms Prefix 1Meth-6Hex- 2Eth- 7Hept- 3 Prop- 8Oct- 4 But- 9Non- 5Pent-10Dec-

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17 What type of organic molecules are these prefixes and suffixes used for? Alcohol Ester Ketone Alkene Benzene ring Alkane

18 What kind of prefix or suffix matches each of these structures? -yne -none Cycl0- -ane Benz-

19  To determine the name of an organic molecule, first classify it by type. Then count the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.  For example, the following structure has one double bond, so its suffix is –ene. There are six carbon atoms in the chain, so its root is hex-. The name of this structure is hexene.

20 StructurePrefixRootSuffixName Prop- -ene Propene Cyclo- -hept- -ane Cycloheptane Pent--ynePentyne

21 StructurePrefixRootSuffixName Prop--anal Propanal Pent--olPentanol

22 PropanolCyclobutanePentanal Draw the following:


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