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How microbes are used to clean up DOD Installations

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Presentation on theme: "How microbes are used to clean up DOD Installations"— Presentation transcript:

1 How microbes are used to clean up DOD Installations
May 10, 2012 Bioremediation - How microbes are used to clean up DOD Installations Traditional Environmental Services Innovative Solutions & Technologies Chemical • Petroleum • Pharmaceutical • Manufacturing • Utilities • Land Development

2 Overview Who is Solutions-IES? Brief History of Remediation Technology
Bioremediation basics Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination Project Examples New Technologies & Emerging Contaminants

3 Who is Solutions-IES, Inc.?
Full service environmental company Formed in Raleigh in 1999 Licensed Engineering and Geology firm Woman Owned Small Business (WOSB) Certified 8(a) DB firm North Carolina HUB DCAA approved accounting system Serving DoD and private industry Providing both traditional and innovative solutions

4 Historical Perspective
Pump & Treat Dig & Haul Energy & Capital intensive Transfer contamination between medium Difficult to reach closure

5 Historical Perspective
(mid-1990s to mid-2000s) In Situ Treatment Technologies Physical: Air Sparge; Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE); In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO); Fe0 walls Biological: Biosparge; Biovent; Oxygen and Nutrient Addition; Substrate Addition; Biobarriers

6 Current Perspective (mid-2000s to now) Optimization Sustainability
Emerging Contaminants Chlordane 1,4-Dioxane PFOS/PFOA Low Permeability Zones

7 Typical Remediation Costs
Surfactant Co-solvent Flushing* $385/yd3 Chemical Oxidation* $125/yd3 Thermal Treatment* $88/yd3 Stabilization $15-80/yd3 Dig and Haul $4-10/yd3 + T&D Pump & Treat ∞ Enhanced Bioremediation* $29/yd3 *From: McDade, Travis and Newell, 2005

8 In Situ Bioremediation
In Place Bio Microbial Remediation Method to Fix Biological agents (bacteria, fungi, plants, or their enzymes) used to clean up pollution in the environment. Reference: Lisa Alvarez-Cohen, Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Berkeley, Earth Science Division, LBNL

9 (something to breathe)
How Does It Work? Growth-Promoting Biological Reduction Microbes Microbe How about sulfate reduction and how does the sulfate work. Microorganisms need food (like PHc) and an electron acceptor (in the way we use oxygen) to reproduce and acquire energy Conveniently for us, during this life cycle – the microorganism can degrade the PHCs to produce waste products and energy In the case where the aquifer system is anaerobic, as we have shown that many are, the microrganisms need a supply of other electron acceptors like sulfate to grow and reproduce – AND degrade PHC + + + Electron Donor (Food) Electron Acceptor (something to breathe) [O2, NO3-, SO42-, TCE, etc.] Waste Products [CO2, N2, FeS2, Cl-] Energy (Drawing Modified from AFCEE and Wiedemeier)

10 Applying In Situ Bioremediation
Natural Attenuation Have Microbes Have food and nutrients Biostimulation Need food or nutrients Bioaugmentation Need Microbes Natural Attenuation – biotransformation occurs naturally: indigenous microbes present, substrates & nutrients present (can be MNA) Biostimulation - indigenous microbes present, substrates &/or nutrients must be added Bioaugmentation – indigenous microbes not present, organisms are added

11 Anaerobic Bioremediation
Target Contaminants Chlorinated Organics Ethenes (PCE, TCE) Ethanes (TCA) Methanes (CT) Petroleum Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) Nitrate, Perchlorate, Chromate Explosives (TNT, RDX, HMX) Acid Mine Drainage

12 How Does It Work?

13 Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination
In Situ anaerobic bioremediation Injected into contaminated aquifer Source zone and/or PRB treatment The organic substrate: Develops an anaerobic and reducing treatment zone Generates hydrogen through fermentation reactions Stimulates microbial growth and metabolism of contaminants of concern

14 Dehalococcoides ethenogenes
Multiple strains (BAV1, 195, VS, MB, FL2) Obligate anaerobe Disc-shaped; spontaneous motility Prefers neutral pH environment Complete dechlorination to VC & ethene Grows slowly; prefers life in consortium Uses acetate for C source; H2 as electron donor Can use chloroethenes, chlorophenols and PCBs as terminal electron acceptors.

15 AEC Tarheel Army Missile Plant Burlington, NC
In Situ Bioremediation of TCE

16 Tarheel Army Missile Plant
1944 – 1992 GOCO Facility 1993 Soil and groundwater contamination discovered (BTEX and TCE) 1995 AS/SVE placed in operation 1999 P&T initiated NW corner 2003 Guaranteed fixed price bids from multiple vendors 2004 Army selects Solutions-IES to perform work 2004 AS/SVE system turned off and Solutions-IES begins EOS® injection

17 Costs (in $1,000) Vendor Process - Reagent Pilot (GFP) Full (Est.)
Total NA MNA 250 Solutions-IES ERD - EOS 256 728 984 Magnus pHA Cometabolic- C3H8 321 894 1,215 Cl-Solutions Cometabolic- Cl-Out 373 1,141 1,515 Arcadis ERD - molasses 339 1,456 1,795 Electro-Petroleum AS with CO2 291 1,763 2,054 Regenesis ERD - HRC 475 1,645 2,120 Geo-Cleanse ISCO - Fenton 281 2,411 2,692

18 TAMP Site Conditions Source area 100’ x 100’ Existing AS/SVE System
Oxidative conditions Chlorinated Solvents 2 – 4 mg/L

19 Regulatory Challenges
Groundwater Reinjection Recovered groundwater is a “waste” Innovative below-ground reinjection system Bioaugmentation First approved use of DHC bioaugmentation in NC

20 TAMP - Summary EOS® effectively distributed throughout treatment area
Quickly established favorable geochemistry for reductive dechlorination TCE reduced to below detection (<1.0 µg/L) in monitor wells in treatment area Remedial goals met within 6 months of injection US Army has sold property! Site has been redeveloped as commercial / office complex

21 NAVFAC Southeast NAS Pensacola SWMU 1 – WWTP
In Situ Bioremediation of TCE in a Sulfate-Rich Acidic Aquifer

22 Site History Former WWTP (SWMU 1), TCE plume with DNAPL source
Sulfuric acid spill 1983 Concentrations in the source area: pH – 3.5 TCE – 18,000 µg/L Remedial activities: P&T ISCO w/Fenton’s MNA for downgradient plume Further treatment required The WWTP received domestic and industrial wastes from the 40’s through the 70’s. Releases resulted in xxxx. NAVFAC has tried several remedial actions to address the contamination including pump and treat and isco using Fenton’s reagent. The combination of DNAPL and very low pH levels resulting from the sulfuric acid spill would imply that biological reductive dechlorination may be limited or impossible. Our objective was to evaluate the potential for a substrate with added buffering agents to raise the pH levels and promote biological reductive dechlorination.

23 Remediation Plan AquaBupH™ to promote in situ bioremediation
Emulsified oil substrate Alkaline solids to adjust pH Nutrients Pilot Study – 2008 2 injections in source area Full-Scale – 2010 2 rounds of injections Remedial objectives: raise pH and distribute oil to promote biodegradation. This project has progressed in a series of stages. We began work in 2008 with a small pilot study in the presumed source area where injected an emulsified oil substrate (EOS) with alkaline solids – AquaBupH. We saw a very good response in the well with the highest concentrations (AE-01), pH levels were adjusted and concentrations diminished. Based on those results, NAVFAC contracted us to conduct a full-scale injection. We collected some additional information on the aquifer materials and geochemistry which I will discuss in more detail later. In May/June 2010, we injected AquaBupH across the site. AquaBupH™ is a licensed product of EOS Remediation, LLC.; Raleigh, NC

24 pH affects on Dehalococcoides sp.
Ashley Eaddy, Scale-Up and Characterization of an Enrichment Culture for Bioaugmentation of the P-Area Chlorinated Ethene Plume at the Savannah River Site. M.S. Thesis, Clemson University.

25 Total Organic Carbon & pH Results
TOC Concentration (mg/L) pH TOC distributed well across the site. pH levels raised in many of the wells, some lag in other wells presumably as buffer overcomes the high acidity of the aquifer. pH levels in the wells exposed to pilot study have responded well and pH is within the optimal range for bioreductive dechlorination. In addition, we had strongly reducing ORP values, we were generating methane and the aquifer conditions appeared to be appropriate for the microbes to do their work.

26 Reductive Dechlorination
Concentration (µM)

27 Sulfate Reduction Iron Concentration (mM) Inhibitory Sulfide

28 Science, Technology & Planning
Received Approval for New Pilot Test Precipitate excess sulfide Unlock microbial toxicity Allow increased growth of DHC Enhance reductive dechlorination even further than already observed

29 Emerging Contaminants &
New Technologies Soil Remediation VOS™ Range Sustainability Chlordane GW Remediation EAS™ MNA for perchlorate remediation

30 Summary Bioremediation On-going Research Wide range of applicability
One of many remediation options Sustainable Cost-effective On-going Research Micro-Biological Tools (MBTs) Emerging Contaminants Optimization

31 Contact Tony Lieberman Solutions-IES, Inc. Raleigh, NC
(ext. 117)

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