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I. ENERGY Common: Heat, light, and electricity Other forms: mechanical energy, chemical energy, and nuclear energy. These forms of energy meet the energy.

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Presentation on theme: "I. ENERGY Common: Heat, light, and electricity Other forms: mechanical energy, chemical energy, and nuclear energy. These forms of energy meet the energy."— Presentation transcript:

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2 I. ENERGY Common: Heat, light, and electricity Other forms: mechanical energy, chemical energy, and nuclear energy. These forms of energy meet the energy needs of the people on Earth.

3 ENERGY  Energy cannot be created or destroyed  Energy can, however, be changed  The storage, transfer, and conversion of energy is the driving forces behind all life on Earth

4 A. THE NEED FOR ENERGY 1. A fuel is any substance from which energy can be obtained 2. Electricity is generated by the conversion of other forms of energy 3. This conversion is not 100 percent efficient. Some energy is converted to heat, light, or sound

5 THE NEED FOR ENERGY  4. Non-renewable resource – a resource that is used faster than it is replaced in nature Ex. Fossil Fuels, Sand, Metals  5. Renewable Resource – a resource that is replaced in nature faster than it is used.  Ex. Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Water

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7 B. Changing Energy Needs 1. Hunter-gatherer societies ○ Light, heat, and cooking ○ Wood met needs

8 Changing Energy Needs  2. Agricultural societies Domesticated animals ○ energy sources for plows and other farm equipment

9 Changing Energy Needs 3. Industrial Revolution Machines take over tasks ○ Farm equipment: horse-drawn plow gave way to tractors and harvesters  Fuel consumption increases due to manufacturing and use of machines

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11 C. Organic Fuels 1. Organic Fuels: a. Contain carbon b. Were once part of living organisms c. Also contain hydrogen 2. A compound composed only of carbon & hydrogen is called a hydrocarbon

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13 Organic Fuels 3. Hydrocarbons may contain impurities other chemicals, such as sulfur or lead compounds Impurities contribute to the pollution

14 4. Fossil Fuels  Stored energy from ancient organisms can be used today as fuel source  Ex. Oil, Coal, Natural Gas

15 D. Coal plants + swamps + sediment + time = Coal  Formed when ancient plant material is compressed below sediment  Rock that is an organic fossil fuel

16 Coal  Heat & pressure: Forces out water Increases the carbon concentration  Increased carbon concentration means Increased energy and less smoke released during combustion.

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18 1. Stages in Coal formation 1. Peat 2. Lignite 3. Bituminous Coal 4. Anthracite

19 a. Peat Found on Earth’s surface Compressed plant material High water concentration Low energy production Burns smoky Brittle and brown Low carbon concentration Resembles decaying wood

20 b. Lignite Compressed peat Lower water concentration Soft brown coal (40% carbon) Releases little smoke and burns quick Found below surface - Mined

21 c. Sub-bituminous coal  Type of coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal  Used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation

22 d. Bituminous coal Soft black coal Most abundant in USA Forms deep below surface – Mined Less water & fewer impurities than lignite Higher carbon concentration (85%) Releases little smoke and burns hotter than lignite Widely used in industries - power plants

23 d. Anthracite coal Metamorphic rock Shiny black color Least water, fewest impurities Highest carbon concentration (95%) Located deeper in the ground than any of the other forms of coal Burns the hottest with the least amount of smoke Most expensive

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25 E. PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS  Fossil fuels can occur in the three phases of matter. Coal - solid Petroleum - liquid Natural Gas - gas

26 1. Petroleum organic material + shallow seas + sediment + time = Petroleum Syrupy black liquid fossil fuel Formed from ancient plankton and other microscopic protists, plants, and animals

27 Impermeable Shale Impermeable - water & other liquids cannot pass through it. Permeable – water & other liquids can pass through it. Permeable Sandstone

28 Oil Wells Pressure builds up Gusher: drilled well into a pressurized pool of oil - shoot upward Where there is little or no pressure, oil must be pumped to the surface

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31 a. Petroleum One of the world's most important resources Separated or refined to make a variety of products Gasoline Jet fuels Motor oil Heating oil Kerosene

32 Petroleum examples cont’  Grease and lubricants used to reduce friction are petroleum by- products  The asphalt, synthetic fabrics, and plastics are also made from petroleum

33 Petroleum b. Worldwide population increases so does the demand for petroleum

34 2. Natural Gas a. Mixture: Methane - major hydrocarbon Ethane - minor hydrocarbon Propane -minor hydrocarbon Trace amounts of: ○ Hydrogen sulfide ○ Carbon dioxide ○ Nitrogen ○ Helium

35 Natural Gas b. Use: Industry Homes and businesses for heating – burns cleaner Household appliances Does not have to be converted to electricity first; more efficient

36 Natural Gas  Household appliances Ex. Stoves Water heaters Clothes dryers

37 Natural Gas c. Natural gas forms in much the same way as petroleum Often found trapped above petroleum pools Sometimes viewed as waste of drilling oil

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39 Homework Review - Homework Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen are (a) fuels; (b) fossil fuels; (c) organic fuels; (d) hydrocarbons.

40 Homework Review - Homework Energy conversion is not 100% efficient because energy is lost in the form of (a) light (b) heat (c) sound (d) all of the above

41 Homework Review - Homework The type of society that has the greatest energy needs is the (a) hunting society; (b) gathering society; (c) industrial society; (d) agricultural society.

42 Homework Review - Homework The first stage in the formation of coal is (a) lignite; (b) peat; (c) anthracite; (d) bituminous coal.

43 Homework Review - Homework The type of coal that has the highest carbon content is (a) peat; (b) lignite; (c) bituminous coal; (d) anthracite.

44 Homework Review - Homework The most abundant form of coal in the United States is (a) peat; (b) lignite; (c) anthracite; (d) bituminous coal.

45 Homework Review - Homework Coal is to fossil fuel as (a) Petroleum is to crude oil (b) Peat is to coal (c) Methane is to swamp gas (d) Alcohol is to biomass fuel

46 Homework Review - Homework Crude oil is another name for (a) alcohol; (b) methane; (c) peat; (d) petroleum.

47 Homework Review - Homework Petroleum: plastics as (a) alcohol: gasoline; (b) coal: carbon; (c) garbage: electricity; (d) industry: fuels.

48 Homework Review - Homework Mines: coal as (a) petroleum: refineries; (b) corn: alcohol; (c) land: agriculture; (d) wells: petroleum

49 Homework Review - Homework The use of corn to make alcohol is an example of (a) bioconversion; (b) fossil fuels; (c) hydrocarbon; (d) refining.

50 Homework Review - Homework Of the following the only example of a biomass fuel is (a) coal; (b) petroleum; (c) wood; (d) natural gas.

51 Homework Review - Homework The process by which alcohol is made by yeast is called (a) fermentation; (b) bioconversion; (c) purification; (d) distillation.

52 Homework Review - Homework Unlike fossil fuels, biomass fuels (a) do not release carbon dioxide; (b) are renewable resources; (c) are buried beneath the surface; (d) are not products of living things.

53 OTHER ORGANIC FUELS  OBJECTIVES:  Describe some of the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels  Compare biomass fuels to fossil fuels, and give an example of a bioconversion technique

54 1. availability & pollution ○ The availability problem fossil fuels are not renewable All available - have already formed F. Problems associated with the use of fossil fuels

55 Problems with Fossil Fuels cont’ Coastal states and offshore drilling risk of environmental damage oil spills widespread habitat alteration

56 Problems with Fossil Fuels  An alternative - depend on the oil that are already known to exist Location, Location, Location…  Operation Desert Storm - supply and demand

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58 Problems with Fossil Fuels 3. Pollution various kinds, especially air pollution a. release carbon dioxide 4. Increased use of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution – increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by more than 20% – 5. Greenhouse Effect

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60 Problems with Fossil Fuels Obtaining fossil fuels is Dangerous 6. Natural gas – combustible 7. Coal miners Suffocation by natural gas Explosions of natural gas and coal dust

61 Coal Mine Explosion

62 G. Biomass Fuels 1. A fuel formed from the products of living organisms. 2. Ex. wood, garbage, methane, and alcohol 3. Renewable Resource – Can be produced

63 4. Wood a. Cheap, used mostly in developing nations Cost and availability 1. Large amounts of time spent searching b. Smoke and high carbon dioxide c. Can be damaging to natural forests

64 5. Garbage a. Much is largely organic materials b. About two-thirds can be burned c. Heat water d. Produce steam Turn turbines Bingo… electric

65 6. Methane a. Swamp gas: produced in swamps from decaying plants naturally produced form of methane b. Decaying garbage in dumps also produces methane c. Methane removed from swamps and garbage dumps is used as a fuel

66 7. Alcohol a. Bioconversion : the conversion of organic materials into fuels Ex. Sugar cane or corn to make alcohol b. Ethanol Yeast – Fermentation i. Liquid biomass fuel Burns cleanly & Renewable

67 Alcohol Brazil - 2 million cars fueled by ethanol ii. Gasohol is a mixture of 90 percent gasoline to I0 percent ethanol Future: Engines that run on alcohol made from sunflower or peanut

68 Objective Revisited  Describe some of the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels and what you think should be done to overcome these problems

69 Objective Revisited  Compare biomass fuels to fossil fuels, and give an example of a bioconversion technique

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72 Covalent and Ionic Bonding

73 II. ATOMS AND RADIOACTIVITY A. Atoms – Basic building blocks of matter  Composed of: 1. Protons 2. Neutrons Nucleus 3. Electrons  Neutral Atom # of p+ = # of e -

74 The Atom Subatomic Particle LocationCharge Mass (amu = atomic mass unit) Proton (p + )Nucleus + 1 amu Neutron (n 0 )NucleusNeutral1 amu Electron (e - )Outside Nucleus -~0 amu

75 Helium 1 Å = 1 ten billionth of a meter

76 B. Atoms and Isotopes 1. AII atoms of the same element have the same number of protons in their nuclei. a. Atomic Number - # of p+ Ex. O = 8 protons /atomic number is 8 b. Atomic Mass/ Mass # = # of protons & neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

77 Atoms and Isotopes c. Individuals atoms of the same element may have different mass #’s because the # of neutrons in the nucleus can vary. d. Isotope : same element but different mass number – different number of neutron.

78 Isotopes

79 Ions vs. Isotopes Change in Number of Electrons - No change in mass - Change in charge - Formation of an ion Change in the Number of Neutrons - Change in mass - No change in charge - Formation of an isotope

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81 C. Radioactivity  Radioactivity – unstable isotopes of atoms, emitting particles & energy from their nuclei as they decay  Studied by Marie Curie

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83  Ex. H-1 is not radioactive, nor is H-2. H-3 is radioactive.

84 2. Three Types of Radiation a. Alpha particles are made up of two protons and two neutrons b. A beta particle is a high-speed electron. c. Gamma rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation

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87 Radioactivity  Alpha decay process changes one element into another 3) Half-life : the amount of time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample of a radioactive element to decay

88 Objective Revisited  Describe the structure of the atom and the atomic nucleus. Draw an image of a planetary model of an atom and a electron cloud model. Make sure to label the three subatomic particles and give the charge and mass for each.

89 D. REACTIONS AND REACTORS 1. Energy holds protons and neutrons together 2. Nuclear Fission- splitting the atom; releases energy a. Can be used to Generate electricity

90 Nuclear Fission b. Uranium-235 most used i. Splits when struck by a neutron ii. When U-235 splits, it releases energy & forms new nuclei, called Daughter nuclei Often barium or krypton Often radioactive

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92 E. Nuclear Reactors 1. Nuclear reactors function very similarly to fossil fuel power plants. 2. Energy is released by nuclear reaction Energy is heat Heat boils water Steam Rises Steam Turns Turbines Generates Electricty

93 Look Familiar?

94 How About Now?

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96 Nuclear Reactors 3. Water: a. Acts as a coolant preventing the core from melting b. Slows the movement of the neutrons released during the chain reaction

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98 Nuclear Reactors c. control rods regulate the speed of the chain reaction i. made of cadmium, boron, or other materials ○ absorb neutrons ○ regulate heat production  coolant water may reach temperatures above 275 °C

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101 Nuclear Fission vs. Nuclear Fusion

102 RADIOACTIVE WASTE OBJECTIVES – Define radioactive waste, and explain the dangers that arise from it. – State the problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes.

103 F. RADIOACTIVE WASTE 1. Produced by Nuclear power plants ~32 metric tons typical nuclear/year ○ Reprossessed into 1.5 tons of extremely radioactive – Dangerous Large amounts of low-level waste

104 RADIOACTIVE WASTE Radiation is unhealthy for living things Actively dividing cells blood-cell producing bone marrow skin cells

105 RADIOACTIVE WASTE  Radiation Exposure Large doses ○ including skin burns ○ anemia ○ death Changes in DNA ○ long-term effects ○ cancer ○ genetic mutations

106 RADIOACTIVE WASTE 4. Radiation exposure measured in rems Average ○ 0.2-0.5 rems / year

107 RADIOACTIVE WASTE  Background radiation mostly comes from naturally occurring elements in our surroundings  Radiation exposure varies widely, depending on where a person lives and where he or she works

108 G. Types of Waste 1. High-level waste Radioactive wastes that emit large amounts of radiation used uranium fuel rods control rods water used to cool and control the chain reactions a. Very Dangerous – May Also Be Poisonous b. May be radioactive for tens of thousands of yrs

109 Types of Waste 2. Medium-level and low-level wastes: Not as radioactive as high-level wastes larger volume of these wastes is generated Ex. mine wastes scattered around a uranium mine contaminated protective clothes of a power plant worker

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111 Types of Waste Low-level radioactive wastes Also produced by hospitals & laboratories Less obvious damage to health than high- level wastes More common than high level wastes May pose a greater health risk to human health

112 H. Waste Disposal The contaminants may have long half-lives, taking thousands of years to decay Low-level wastes can be dangerous for 300 years or more

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114 H. Waste Disposal 1. High-level wastes may be dangerous for tens of thousands of years Plutonium-239 half-life of 24,000 years dangerous for 192, 000 years deadly poison, even in small amounts

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117 Waste Disposal 2. Long half-lives = serious disposal problem 3. Must be sealed in containers that will not corrode for thousands of years 4. U.S. government seal the wastes in glass a. must be geologically stable b. Earthquake or Volcanoes could cause spill c. Must be stored deep under the ground (costly)

118 Waste Disposal Almost all the high-level radioactive wastes in the world have not been disposed of permanently They sit in storage tanks outside nuclear power and weapons plants

119 Waste Disposal In many cases, these tanks have begun to leak, contaminating the groundwater and releasing radioactive wastes into the environment

120 Waste Disposal  These wastes must be permanently removed before the contamination gets worse  The government predicts that the cleanup of 20 of the most contaminated nuclear weapons sites in the United States could cost $600 billion

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122 Waste Disposal  Low-level wastes pose disposal problems often buried enclosed in concrete and dropped into the ocean Exposes environment to contamination  Medium-level wastes have not been disposed of permanently presents many of the same problems as high-level wastes

123 I. Safety and Cost If the cooling and control systems in a reactor core fail, the chain reaction can no longer be controlled The core will grow hotter, causing the fuel rods and even the reactor vessel to melt Meltdown

124 Safety and Cost  Full meltdown release huge amounts of radiation plants are built to avoid meltdowns or contain them if they occur In April I986, however, one core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine did melt down

125  The Chernobyl plant was old and lacked many of the safety features built into newer plants  The accident itself was caused by human error

126  The severity of this accident and the problems with radioactive waste disposal has led many people to question the wisdom of using nuclear power  Nuclear power plants are also very expensive because the required safety measures are very costly

127 Homework Review Protons and neutrons are found together in the part of the atom called the (a) alpha particle; (b) electron; (c) nucleus; (d) isotope.

128 Homework Review Protons and neutrons are found together in the part of the atom called the (a) (b) (c) nucleus; (d)

129 Homework Review Two atoms of the same element with different mass numbers are called (a) isotopes; (b) nuclei; (c) electrons; (d) neutrons.

130 Homework Review Two atoms of the same element with different mass numbers are called (a) isotopes; (b) (c) (d)

131 Homework Review One kind of radiation not released by radioactive decay is (a) alpha particles; (b) free protons; (c) beta particles; (d) gamma rays.

132 Homework Review One kind of radiation not released by radioactive decay is (a) (b) free protons; (c) (d)

133 Homework Review All isotopes of an element contain the same number of neutrons. TRUE or FALSE

134 Homework Review All isotopes of an element contain the same number of neutrons. FALSE, Protons

135 Homework Review Beta particles contain two protons and two neutrons. TRUE or FALSE

136 Homework Review Beta particles contain two protons and two neutrons. FALSE, Alpha

137 Homework Review The fuel most commonly used in fission reactions is (a) Np-239; (b) U-238; (c) U-235; (d) Pu-239.

138 Homework Review The fuel most commonly used in fission reactions is (a) (b) (c) U-235; (d)

139 Homework Review Devices that absorb neutrons and are used to control the speed of a fission reactor are called (a) reactor vessels; (b) fuel rods; (c) containment buildings; (d) control rods.

140 Homework Review Devices that absorb neutrons and are used to control the speed of a fission reactor are called (a) (b) (c) (d) control rods.

141 Homework Review A fission chain reaction begins when an atom of U-235 is struck by a neutron. TRUE or FALSE

142 Homework Review A fission chain reaction begins when an atom of U-235 is struck by a neutron. TRUE

143 Homework Review In a fission reaction, some of the mass of the original atom is converted to energy. TRUE or FALSE

144 Homework Review In a fission reaction, some of the mass of the original atom is converted to energy. TRUE

145 Homework Review Each year, an average person in the United States is exposed to a radiation level of (a) 2 rems; (b) 0.2 rems; (c) 20 rems; (d) 200 rems.

146 Homework Review Each year, an average person in the United States is exposed to a radiation level of (a) (b) 0.2 rems; (c) (d)

147 Homework Review Pu-239 has a half-life of (a) 24 years; (b) 240 years; (c) 2400 years; (d) 24 000 years.

148 Homework Review Pu-239 has a half-life of (a) (b) (c) (d) 24 000 years.

149 Homework Review Losing control of the fission reaction in a reactor core may result in a (a) cooldown; (b) meltdown; (c) draindown; (d) cooling tower.

150 Homework Review Losing control of the fission reaction in a reactor core may result in a (a) (b) meltdown; (c) (d)

151 Homework Review The number of people forced to evacuate because of the Chernobyl accident was (a) 1,160; (b) 11,600; (c) 116,000; (d) 1,160,000.

152 Homework Review The number of people forced to evacuate because of the Chernobyl accident was (a) (b) (c) 116,000; (d)

153 Homework Review Radon gas is responsible for 25 percent of the radiation in most U.S. homes. TRUE or FALSE

154 Homework Review Radon gas is responsible for 25 percent of the radiation in most U.S. homes. FALSE, 55 percent

155 Homework Review Plutonium must be stored for 192,000 years before it is safe. TRUE or FALSE

156 Homework Review Plutonium must be stored for 192,000 years before it is safe. TRUE

157 Homework Review The cleanup of the 20 most polluted nuclear weapons facilities in the United States will cost $600 billion. TRUE or FALSE

158 Homework Review The cleanup of the 20 most polluted nuclear weapons facilities in the United States will cost $600 billion. TRUE

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160 Objective Revisited  Visually explain how changes in human societies have changed the demand for energy

161 Objective Revisited  In a complete sentence describe the structure of organic fuels

162 Objective Revisited  List the stages of coal formation and describe the characteristics of each stage.

163 Objective Revisited  Using the map of the United States provided for you in you packet describe to areas where coal deposits are found. Generalize the type of coal found and the location.  Utilize the next slide to help clarify colors

164 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS OBJECTIVES: Describe the processes of petroleum formation and extraction. List several uses for petroleum and natural gas.

165 Objective Revisited In your own words or using pictures describe the processes of petroleum formation and extraction.

166 Objective Revisited  Think back on the uses for petroleum and natural gas mentioned in this chapter so far. List which uses you personally experience in an average month.

167 ATOMS AND RADIOACTIVITY OBJECTIVES: – Describe the structure of the atom and the atomic nucleus. – Explain how unstable nuclei become stable by releasing radiation.

168 REACTIONS AND REACTORS OBJECTIVES – Discuss the fission chain reactions that power nuclear reactors – Diagram the structure and function of a nuclear reactor.

169 Objective Revisited Diagram the structure and function of a nuclear reactor.

170 OBJECTIVE REVISITED Define radioactive waste, explain the dangers that arise from it and state the problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes.

171 OBJECTIVE REVISITED Write a personal response to your thoughts about the Chernobyl accident.


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