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Chemical Compounds Honors Chemistry. 3 Types of Formulas Empirical: Smallest whole-number-ratio of atoms or ions in a compound – Ex. CH 2 NH 3 Molecular:

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Compounds Honors Chemistry. 3 Types of Formulas Empirical: Smallest whole-number-ratio of atoms or ions in a compound – Ex. CH 2 NH 3 Molecular:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Compounds Honors Chemistry

2 3 Types of Formulas Empirical: Smallest whole-number-ratio of atoms or ions in a compound – Ex. CH 2 NH 3 Molecular: Tells you the actual number of atoms of an element in a compound – Ex. C 2 H 4 N 2 H 6 Structural: Indicates how the atoms are bonded to each other

3 REMEMBER Atoms are too small to count or mass individually. It is easier to count many or mass many. amu gram ( atomic scale) (macroscopic scale) atoms, ions, molecules, or formula units 18.0 g/mol mole Molar Mass = mass, in grams, per 1 mole of a substance units = grams/mole (g/mol) Example: the molar mass of H 2 O is How does the mole relate to compounds?

4 Molecular formulas and molar masses are used to determine Percent Composition 1.Definition: percentage, by mass, of each element in a compound % Composition = (part/whole) x Problems a.Calculate the % composition of NaCl % Na: % Cl: 39.3% Na 60.7% Cl

5 Percent Composition of Hydrate Definition: A hydrate is an ionic compound with water embedded in it. b.Calculate the % water in a hydrate, Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2. 6H 2 O. molar mass of hydrate = molar mass of anhydrate + x(molar mass of water) % water = g/mol Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2. 6H 2 O 29.1% H 2 O

6 How can you identify different types of compounds? Type of Compound Identification Ionic Begins with a metal Covalent Begins with a nonmetal Acid Begins with a hydrogen and is aqueous Hydrate Ionic Compound and Water

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8 Ionic Compounds Made from a positively and negatively charged ion Overall charge of the compound is zero Types of Ionic Compounds – Binary – Ternary

9 Binary Compounds: Composed of two monatomic ions Primary Rules for Charges: YOU MUST KNOW THESE RULES 1 or IA +1 2 or IIA +2 3 or IIIA or VA -3 in binary compounds with metals, H, or NH or VIA -2 in binary compounds with metals, H, or NH or VIIA -1 in binary compounds with metals, H, or NH 4 +

10 a. Binary Compounds – only monatomic ions in compound sodium chloride iron(III) sulfide FeS NaCl Fe 2 S 3 iron(II) sulfide Ionic Compounds – look at charges; roman numerals needed for elements with more than one charge (polyvalent)

11 Ionic Compounds Binary Compounds HF (g) AlCl 3 Cr 2 O 3 hydrogen fluoride aluminum chloride chromium(III) oxide

12 Ionic Compounds Ternary Compounds – contain 1/more polyatomic ions in compound sodium carbonate chromium(III) oxalate ammonium sulfate Na 2 CO 3 Cr 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4

13 Ionic Compounds Ternary Co 3 (AsO 4 ) 2 CuSO 3 Note for polyatomic ions: -ate vs. –ite per- and hypo- cobalt(II) arsenate copper(II) sulfite

14 Ionic Compounds magnesium hydroxide calcium sulfate ammonium phosphate Mg(OH) 2 CaSO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4

15 AnionDescriptionExample per_____ ate _______ate _______ ite hypo_____ ite 1 extra oxygen the most common form 1 less oxygen 2 less oxygens ClO 4 -1 perchlorate ClO 3 -1 chlorate ClO 2 -1 chlorite ClO -1 hypochlorite

16 Now try these… sulfite periodate phosphite bisulfite SO 3 -2 IO 4 -1 PO 3 -3 HSO 3 -1

17 Check for Understanding magnesium hydride calcium acetate FeS 2 O 3 SnI 4 tin (IV) iodide iron (II) thiosulfate Ca(CH 3 COO) 2 MgH 2

18 Molecular Compounds – formed between 2 nonmetals *Use prefixes mono = 1 hexa = 6 di = 2hepta = 7 tri = 3octa = 8 tetra = 4nona = 9 penta = 5deca = 10 Binary Compounds : only 2 elements in the compound; use prefixes and –ide ending CCl 4 N 2 O 5 carbon tetrachloride dinitrogen pentoxide

19 More Practice dihydrogen monoxide nitrogen tetrabromide S 2 O 6 H2OH2O NBr 4 disulfur hexoxide

20 Hydrates – ionic compound with water bonded in its structure anhydrate. xH 2 O anhydrate  ionic compound add prefix to indicate # of water molecules CuSO 4. 5H 2 O copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate

21 Acids – compounds that produce hydrogen ions in water 1.Mineral Acids a. Binary Acids 1 st word: prefix = hydro root formed from anion suffix –ide changed to -ic 2 nd word: acid HCl (aq) HBr (aq) hydrochloric acid hydrobromic acid

22 B. Oxyacids 1 st word: root from anion Suffix ate changed to ic Suffix ite changed to ous **Exceptions: if you have sulf or phos as roots, change the root to sulfur or phosphor 2 nd word: acid HNO 3 HNO 2 phosphorous acid Nitric acid Nitrous acid H 3 PO 3

23 Common Acids to Know HCl H 2 CO 3 HClO 4 H 2 SO 4 H 3 PO 4 HNO 3 CH 3 COOH = HC 2 H 3 O 2 hydrochloric acid carbonic acid perchloric acid sulfuric acid phosphoric acid nitric acid acetic acid

24 Salts Ionic compound composed of a cation (positive ion) and an anion (negative ion) from an acid NaCl CaSO 4 NaHCO 3 NaHSO 3

25 Organic Compounds >11 million compounds Contain a C-C or C-H bond in combination with N, O, S, P or halogens Simplest = CH 4 Most complex = DNA

26 Hydrocarbons Only have carbon and hydrogen Simplest organic compounds From petroleum (crude oil)

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28 Organic Compounds Allotropes of carbon Allotropes: Different forms of an element in same physical state Catenation: ability of an element to form chains and/or rings of covalently bonded atoms

29 Structural Formula Indicates the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also shows the bonding arrangement of the atoms One possible isomer of C 4 H 10 Does not show 3D shape

30 Naming Organic Compounds Alkanes – saturated organic compound – Contains only single bonds – General Formula: C n H 2n+2 Alkenes – unsaturated organic compound – Contains at least one double bond – General Formula: C n H 2n Alkynes – unsaturated organic compound – Contains at least one triple bond – General Formula: C n H 2n-2 What type of organic compound is C 4 H 10 ?

31 Naming Hydrocarbons 1.Find the longest chain of carbon atoms. Choose the base name that describes the number of carbon atoms in this chain. Use the following endings: Alkane (ane), Alkene (ene), Alkyne (yne) # C atomsStem# C atomsStem 1meth9non 2eth10dec 3prop11undec 4but12dodec 5pent13tridec 6hex14tetradec 7hept15pentadec 8oct16hexadec

32 2.Number the carbon atoms in this longest chain beginning at the end nearest the 1 st branching. If there is branching at equal distances from both ends of the longest chain, begin numbering at the end nearest the branch that is 1 st in alphabetical order. Naming hydrocarbons 1234

33 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes Number the carbon atoms in the chain sequentially, beginning at the end nearer the double or triple bond. If the parent chain has more than 3 carbons, insert the number describing the position of the double or triple bond (indicated by its 1 st carbon location) before the base name. 1-butene2-butene

34 Branches/Substituents on the Main Chain 1)Additional Hydrocarbon branches The hydrocarbon branches are called alkyl groups: -CH 3 methyl -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 propyl -CH 2 CH 3 ethyl -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 butyl 2)The organic halides are elements from group 17 in the periodic table. The prefix can be fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- or iodo-.

35 Assign the name (stem with yl ending) & position number to each substituent or branch. Arrange substituents in alphabetical order. The hydrocarbon branches are called alkyl groups: -CH 3 methyl -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 propyl -CH 2 CH 3 ethyl -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 butyl Hydrocarbon Branches or Substituents

36 4.Use the appropriate prefix to group like substituents: di = 2, tri = 3, tetra = 4, etc. Do not use these prefixes when alphabetizing attached groups 5.Write the name as a single word. Use hyphens to separate numbers & letters and commas to separate numbers. Do not leave any spaces. Naming hydrocarbons

37 In naming alkenes and alkynes, the mulitple bond takes positional precedence over substituents on the carbon chain. The double bond is assigned the lowest possible number. 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene4-methyl-2-pentene Naming Alkenes and Alkynes

38 Naming Organic Halides (Alkyl Halides) The organic halides are named as halo- derivatives of the parent hydrocarbon. The prefix can be fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- or iodo-. 1-chloropropane 1-chloro-2-methylpropane

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40 Alkene Examples 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene 3-ethyl-4,6-dimethyl-1-heptene

41 Named just like the alkenes except the suffix –yne is added Naming Alkynes 1-butyne 2-butyne ethyne propyne

42 Alkyne Examples 3-methyl-1-butyne5-methyl-2-hexyne

43 Arrangement of Atoms Isomers – compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures More C atoms in formula, more isomers – 18 isomers for C 8 H 18 – 35 isomers for C 9 H 20 – 75 isomers for C 10 H 22 Isomers of C 6 H 14

44 Structural Isomers Isomers in which the atoms are bonded together in different orders. C 4 H 10 (note continuous chain of C atoms) butane methylpropane

45 Physical Properties of Structural Isomers Melting Point (°C) Boiling Point (°C) Density at 20°C Butane Methylpropane

46 Ex #1) Butane, C 4 H 10 Ex #2) Butene, C 4 H 8 Ex #3) 2-Butene, C 4 H 8 Ex #4) methyl propene, C 4 H 8 ISOMERS

47 Functional Groups an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound

48 Diffusion and Effusion Diffusion: the mixing of molecules of 2 or more gases due to their molecular motion (spontaneous) Effusion is the movement of gas atoms or molecules through a small opening. Gases confined in a container randomly pass through a tiny opening in the container. ex) hole in a tire; soda bottle (CO 2 escaping)

49 Graham’s Law: The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass. He and SF 6 demo


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