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EVALUATION OF E85 FUELS Presented at the 6 th Annual Fuel Ethanol Laboratory Conference 11-13-13 By Jerry King.

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Presentation on theme: "EVALUATION OF E85 FUELS Presented at the 6 th Annual Fuel Ethanol Laboratory Conference 11-13-13 By Jerry King."— Presentation transcript:

1 EVALUATION OF E85 FUELS Presented at the 6 th Annual Fuel Ethanol Laboratory Conference By Jerry King

2 THE PROJECT Randomly select five Omaha metro E85 facilities Collect one (1) Liter of E85 into an aluminum container Analyze the samples following ASTM D5798 Report results for Anions (chloride & sulfate) Ethanol and methanol Washed and unwashed gum Moisture and pHe Specific gravity and vapor pressure Acidity Copper and sulfur Compare results with each other and D5798

3 E85 PATHWAY Hydrocarbon Source D 4814 Ethanol Source D 4806 E85 D 5798 Additives Distribution Pump Vehicle shipped blended

4 THE CHALLENGE(S) Produce a quality product Meet/exceed ASTM D5798 specifications Producers (ethanol and hydrocarbon) Automobile industry Consumers (vehicle operators) Make a profit Sell directly to the consumer or distributor Comply with Federal and State regulations Component standards Operational standards Address the needs of Service stations Vehicle owners

5 ASTM a Approved by ASTM D02A June 15, 2013 and published July 2013 Critical components of the standard To contain 51 – 83 volume % ethanol Four classes based on vapor pressure - kPa (psi) Class 1: 38 – 62 kPa or 5.5 – 9.0 psi Class 2: 48 – 65 kPa or 7.0 – 9.5 psi Class 3: 59 – 83 kPa or 8.5 – 12.0 psi Class 4: 66 – 103 kPa or 9.6 – 15.0 psi Variable vapor pressure requirements to meet seasonal climatic changes Ethanol content and hydrocarbon blendstock are adjusted by the blender to meet vapor pressure requirements Agreement between purchaser and seller to denote vapor pressure class at the time and place of bulk delivery

6 US VOLATILITY SPECIFICATIONS TABLE 3 of ASTM D5798 Based on month of the year – example Nebraska Jan - 4 Feb - 4 Mar - 4/3 April - 3/2 May - 2 June - 2/1 July - 1 August - 1/2 Sept - 2 Oct - 2/3 Nov - 3/4 Dec - 4

7 ETHANOL FUEL BLEND REQUIREMENTS From Table 1 - ALL CLASSES must meet: Ethanol volume % - 51 – 83 Water content, max, mass % Methanol content, max, volume % Sulfur content, max, mg/kg - 80 Acidity (as acetic acid) mass % max, Solvent washed gum content, max, mg/100 mL - 5 Unwashed gum content, max, mg/100 mL - 20 pHe – 9.0 Inorganic chloride content, max mg/kg - 1 Copper content, max, mg/L

8 HYDROCARBON BLENDSTOCK REQUIREMENTS FROM TABLE 2 of ASTM D5798 Distillation end point, max degrees C or 437 degrees F Oxidation stability, min. minutes Copper strip corrosion, max, - No. 1 Silver strip corrosion, max - No. 1 Vapor pressure - report Note - vapor pressure is to be known in order to choose a suitable blend ratio for the components to meet vapor pressure requirements of a particular volatility class

9 WORKMANSHIP REQUIREMENTS Comply with part 6 of ASTM 5798 Free of sediment Clear and bright Free of any adulterant or contaminant Any ethanol or blendstock containing silicon-containing materials To deliver a quality product, the producer (you) must know what goes into the product Sometimes difficult to test a parameter (no recognized ASTM standard) Must know how to test the components and maybe the final product Who holds the responsibility of a defective/non-spec product????

10 COMPARATIVE DATA FOR FIVE (5) E85 SAMPLES Compare results with each other and the standard

11 Vapor Pressure (DVPE)

12 VAPOR PRESSURE Samples collected in Omaha in September Table 3 indicates Class 2 in September Class – 9.5 psi All samples in specification, but at the low end of vapor pressure Product Carry-over from August which is class 1 or 2 (1 / 2) 5.5 – 9.0 psi for class 1

13 Grabner Vapor Pressure Instrument (Used for Vapor Pressure - ASTM D5191)

14 Ethanol Percentage (%Vol)

15 ETHANOL CONTENT Looks like two different suppliers Two locations with about 80% ethanol Three locations with about 68% ethanol ALL FIVE WITHIN “SPEC”

16 Bruker GC Gas Chromatograph (Used for Ethanol & Methanol - ASTM D5501)

17 ASTM D5501 GC/FID instrument (flame ionization detector) Standard curve is prepared using increasing concentrations of ethanol Develop a response factor or use theoretical as found in the method

18 Moisture, Karl Fisher (%Mass)

19 AquaStar Coulometric Karl Fischer Instrument (Used for Karl Fischer Moisture - ASTM E1064)

20 Acidity in Ethanol (%)

21 Titration Setup for Acidity with Nitrogen Purge (ASTM D7795)

22 ACIDITY Can use ASTM D1613 or ASTM D7795 Both are titration methods – titrate with known base (sodium hydroxide) Results reported as acetic acid Differences in methods ASTM D1613 – straight titration ASTM D7795 uses nitrogen blanket Removes the influence/effects of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Carbon dioxide from air plus water = carbonic acid (HCO 3 - ) Titrated and reported as “acetic acid”

23 Dionex Ion Chromatograph (used for Chloride & Sulfate - ASTM D7328)

24 Chloride (mg/kg)

25 Sulfate (mg/kg)

26 Antek 9000 Series Sulfur Analyzer (Used for Sulfur – ASTM 5453)

27 Sulfur (total) (ppm)

28 Thermo Scientific Atomic Absorption (AA) Spectrometer (Used for Copper - ASTM D1688)

29 Copper (mg/kg)

30 Thermo Scientific Orion 3 Star Bench-Top pH Meter (Used for pHe - ASTM D6423)

31 pHe

32 Anton Parr Digital Densitometer

33 Specific Gravity (g/mL at 60F)

34 Gum Residue, Unwashed (mg/100mL)

35 Gum Residue, Washed (mg/100mL)

36 Moisture, Karl Fisher (%Vol)

37 Methanol (%Vol)

38 CONCLUSION(S) With the exception of copper in one sample, all parameters were “in spec” Sample results showed variability which is to be expected Assume the ethanol plant laboratory obtained about the same results as MWL


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