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Chapt 21 Hydrocarbons [Selected] 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons 21.2 Alkanes [Straight-Chain Only] 21.3 Alkenes & Alkynes (added) 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapt 21 Hydrocarbons [Selected] 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons 21.2 Alkanes [Straight-Chain Only] 21.3 Alkenes & Alkynes (added) 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapt 21 Hydrocarbons [Selected] 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons 21.2 Alkanes [Straight-Chain Only] 21.3 Alkenes & Alkynes (added) 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers [also with O]

2 Section 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons Explain the terms organic compound and organic chemistry. Identify hydrocarbons Recognize the different ways that hydrocarbon molecules may be represented (molecular formula, structural formula, ball-and-stick model, etc.) and convert a molecular formula into a valid structural formula and vice versa, Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are carbon-containing organic compounds that provide a source of energy and raw materials.

3 Section 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons Key Concepts Organic compounds contain the element ?? Hydrocarbons are organic substances composed of carbon and ??. The major sources of hydrocarbons are petroleum and natural gas.

4 Organic Compounds Name used because living organisms known to contain/produce them Term applied to all carbon-containing compounds except for a small number of compounds considered to be inorganic Because huge number exist, an entire branch of chemistry – organic chemistry – devoted to their study

5 Essential Organic Chemistry Bond – force that hold atoms together in compounds Carbon atom (C) always forms 4 bonds with other atoms; bond represented by a line Hydrogen can only form one bond

6 Organic Compounds - Hydrocarbons Simplest organic compounds; consist of only the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) In hydrocarbon, C either attached (bonded) to another C or to a hydrogen Are thousands of hydrocarbons; can be in chain, branched chain, ring, and cage-like structures Major source of hydrocarbons – petroleum and natural gas (mostly CH 4 – methane)

7 Hydrocarbons Carbon atoms bond to each other by single, double, & triple bonds (always 4 total bonds) Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bonds Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain at least one double or triple bond SingleDouble Triple Bond to some unspecified atom

8 Simplest Hydrocarbon - Methane Chemical (molecular) formula: CH 4 Structural formula: C H H H H Chemical bond Carbon atom with 4 bonds

9 Simple Hydrocarbons - Methane One carbon atom attached to 4 hydrogens Shape of carbon bonded to 4 other atoms is a tetrahedron – bond angles of  Hydrogens occupy corners of tetrahedron 

10 Ways of Representing Compounds Compounds may be represented by various types of formulas and graphical presentations Variety of these shown on following slides Chemists use form that best shows information they wish to highlight Molecular formula most compact but no information about connections & geometry Structural show connections but no 3D info Most graphical forms can be generated and/or manipulated using online chemical software

11 Ways of Representing Methane Chemical (molecular) formula CH 4 C H H H H Structural formula Structural formula with additional geometry information – solid wedge coming toward you, dashed one away Ball & stick model Space- filling model

12 Chapt 21 Hydrocarbons [Selected] 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons 21.2 Alkanes 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers [also with O]

13 Section 21.2 Alkanes Name a straight-chain alkane from its molecular formula or by examining its structure (up to octane). Draw the structural formula or write the molecular formula of a straight-chain alkane when given its name (up to octane). Alkanes are hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds.

14 Section 21.2 Alkanes Key Concepts Alkanes contain only single bonds between carbon atoms. Alkanes and other organic compounds are best represented by structural formulas and can be named using systematic rules determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Alkanes that contain hydrocarbon rings are called cyclic alkanes.

15 Alkanes Simple Alkanes – hydrocarbons with only single bonds and no ring structures All have formula C n H 2n+2 n = integer All have names ending in “ane” Simplest = methane Chemical (molecular) formula: CH 4 Structural formula: C H H H H Chemical bond Carbon atom with 4 bonds

16 Alkanes n = 2 ethane Chemical (molecular) formula: C 2 H 6 Structural formula: n = 3 propane Chemical (molecular) formula: C 3 H 8 Structural formula: C H H H C H H H C H H HC H H H C H H

17 “Constructing” Alkanes Stepwise Can think of alkanes larger than methane as being built from smaller molecules by adding a methyl group: CH 3 Process: 1) Remove H atom (leave bond) 2) Replace removed atom with CH 3 If start with CH 4, four possible choices for H to remove, but all choices result in exactly the same molecule, ethane = C 2 H 6

18 methane CH 4 Making Ethane (C 2 H 6 ) From CH 4 methyl group: CH 3 ethane C 2 H 6

19 Ethane Can write formula as C 2 H 6 or as CH 3 CH 3 Latter method allows one to visualize and draw structure more easily Additional very compact representation possible – skeletal (aka line-angle or bond line) formula Bonds are lines (as before) Carbon atoms present where line begins or ends or where 2 lines meet H not shown unless attached to drawn atom As represented by skeletal formula

20 Ethane Most alkanes rotate freely about the single bond between carbon atoms

21 Single Bond Free Rotation Free rotation occurs about single bonds Consequence of free rotation: 2 molecules that may appear different when drawn may in fact be identical because one molecule may be twisted about its single bonds to have the exact same shape as the 2 nd molecule

22 Two Equivalent Butane Molecules Right hand structure is twisted version of left hand structure

23 Single Bond Free Rotation Free rotation occurs about single bonds Because of free rotation all six hydrogen atoms in ethane are equivalent If making new compound from ethane by replacing a hydrogen, doesn’t matter which one is chosen – result will be the same

24 Making Propane (C 3 H 8 ) From Ethane Ethane: C 2 H 6 methyl group: CH 3 Propane: C 3 H 8 or CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 As represented by skeletal formula Note: “straight” chain shown in structural formula isn’t

25 Straight-Chain Alkanes n = 3 propane Propane: Molecular formula: C 3 H 8 Structural formula: For n > 3, it makes a difference which carbon the next methyl group is added For straight-chain alkanes, next methyl always added to an end carbon – structural formula (untwisted) has all carbons in a line C H H HC H H H C H H

26 Simple Hydrocarbons - Alkanes Condensed formula helps to see structure Butane C 4 shown as straight-chain isomer CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Type of Formula Molecular Structural Ball-and-Stick Space Fill Condensed CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3

27 Hydrocarbons – Straight-Chain Alkanes Type of Formula Name Molecular Condensed

28 Chapt 21 Hydrocarbons [Selected] 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons 21.2 Alkanes [Straight-Chain Only] 21.3 Alkenes & Alkynes 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers [also with O]

29 Section 21.3 Alkenes & Alkynes Name a straight-chain alkene or alkyne from its molecular formula or by examining its structure (up to oct-). Draw the structural formula or write the molecular formula of a straight-chain alkene or alkyne when given its name (up to oct-). Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain at least one double-bond; Alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain at least one triple-bond.

30 Alkenes Alkenes- hydrocarbons that have one or more double bonds between Carbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons Naming: prefix + ene

31 Naming and Drawing Alkenes PrefixNameStructure Eth-EtheneH-CH=CH-H Prop-PropeneH-CH=CH-CH 2 -H But-1-Butene H-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -H Pent-1-PenteneH-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Hex-1-HexeneH-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Hept-1-HepteneH-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Oct-1-Octene H-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H

32 Doubles Bonds Can Move, Changes Name of Molecule PrefixNameStructure But-1-Butene H-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -H But-2-Butene H-CH 2 -CH=CH 2 -CH 2 -H Pent-1-PenteneH-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Pent-2-PenteneH-CH 2 -CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -H Hex-1-HexeneH-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Hex-2-Hexene H-CH 2 -CH=CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Hex-3-HexeneH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -H

33 Alkynes Alkynes- are hydrocarbons that have one or more triple bonds between Carbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons Naming: prefix + yne Example: Ethyne (Acetylene) u sed as a fuel in welding.

34 Naming and Drawing Alkynes PrefixNameStructure Eth-EthyneH-C=C-H Prop-PropyneH-C=C-CH 2 -H But-1-Butyne H-C=C-CH 2 -CH 2 -H Pent-1-PentyneH-C=C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Hex-1-HexyneH-C=C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Hept-1-HeptyneH-C=C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H Oct-1-Octyne H-C=C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -H

35 Chapt 21 Hydrocarbons [Selected] 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons 21.2 Alkanes [Straight-Chain Only] 21.3 Alkenes & Alkynes 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers [also with O]

36 Section 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers Define the terms isomer, structural isomer, and stereoisomer. Categorize molecular structures as being structural isomers, stereoisomers or as not being isomers. Distinguish between geometric (diastereomers) and optical isomers (enantiomers) Differentiate between geometric isomers with cis- and trans prefixes. Describe describe the structural characteristics that are associated with optical isomers Some hydrocarbons [and other compounds] have the same molecular formula but have different molecular structures.

37 Section 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers Generate isomers of compounds containing oxygen in addition to carbon and hydrogen Some hydrocarbons [and other compounds] have the same molecular formula but have different molecular structures.

38 Section 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers Key Concepts Isomers are two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but different molecular structures. Structural isomers differ in the order in which atoms are bonded to each other. Stereoisomers have all atoms bonded in the same order but arranged differently in space; stereoisomers can either be optical isomers (enantiomers) or not (diastereomers) Stereoisomers which are non-superimposable mirror images of each other are called optical isomers Some diastereomers are geometric isomers; these are associated with carbon compounds containing double bonds

39 Section 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers Key Concepts When oxygen is present in a compound with carbon and hydrogen, isomers can involve hydroxy (-OH), ether (-O-) and carbonyl (C=O) groupings

40 Formulas for Compounds - Isomers Isomers – different compounds which have the same chemical formula 2 main categories: structural (aka constitutional) isomers and stereoisomers (aka configurational) Structural isomer - atoms bonded in different order Stereoisomer – atoms bonded in same order but differ in spatial orientation Web resources at:

41 Geometric (Cis-trans) Other diastereomers (>1 chiral centers) Diastereomers Enantiomers (optical) Types of Isomers Structural (Constitutional) Stereoisomers (Configurational) All Isomers

42 Butane – Structural Isomers Butane, C 4 H 10 - smallest alkane to have isomers (has two) Unlike construction of ethane and propane, choice of which H in propane to replace with a methyl group makes a difference Two possible choices generate two structural isomers – carbons connected to each other differently Structural isomers differ in physical and chemical properties

43 propane (C 3 H 8 ) or Making Butane (C 4 H 10 ) From Propane

44 Two Equivalent n-Butane Molecules Right hand structure is twisted version of left hand molecule

45 Butane - Bond Rotations (not isomers)

46 . Butane C 4 H 10. = = Not isomers – carbons connected in same way and forms can convert from one to the other by rotating around a bond Structural isomers – carbons connected in different way; bond must be broken to convert one form into the other

47 Structural Isomers of C 4 H 10 Butane, BP = 0°C Isobutane, BP = -12°C

48 Butane (C 4 H 10 ) Other Skeletal Formula Structural Formula CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH(CH 3 )CH 3 n-butane straight chain iso-butane branched

49 n-Butane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3

50 Making Pentane (C 5 H 12 ) From Butane At first glance, appear to be 4 isomers - but 3 isomers remain

51 The 3 Structural Isomers of Pentane

52 n Structural Isomers of C 5 H 12 (Pentane) n-pentane isopentane neopentane Longest continuous carbon chain: pentane 5 isopentane 4 neopentane 3

53 Alkane Isomers – Alternate Strategy Rather than building new isomers by adding a methyl group to known isomers of a particular alkane, the following slides illustrate an alternative approach 1)Draw straight chain version of alkane of interest 2)Break one or more carbon-carbon bonds and rearrange the pieces 3)Check that new molecules don’t repeat existing ones (reflection, rotation)

54 Structural Isomers of Hexane (C 6 H 14 ) Start: connect carbons in a line Break bonds & rearrange to get other isomers

55 Hexane (C 6 H 14 ) Isomers Showing H Atoms

56 Hexane (C 6 H 14 ) Isomers In Skeleton Form

57 Structural Isomers of Hexane (C 6 H 14 )

58 Boiling Points - Hexane Isomers

59 Structural Isomers of Hexane (C 6 H 14 ) Site has rotatable models with display options

60 Molecular Formula Possible # Isomers Molecular Formula Possible # Isomers C 4 H 10 2C 11 H C 5 H 12 3C 12 H C 6 H 14 5C 15 H 32 4,347 C 7 H 16 9C 20 H ,319 C 8 H 18 18C 30 H 62 4,111,846,763 C 9 H 20 35C 40 H 82 62,481,801,147,341 C 10 H # of Alkane (C n H 2n+2 ) Structural Isomers

61 Geometric (Cis-trans) Other diastereomers (>1 chiral centers) Diastereomers Enantiomers (optical) Types of Isomers Structural (Constitutional) Stereoisomers (Configurational) All Isomers

62 Enantiomers - Optical Isomers Tied to concept of non superimposable mirror images Familiar example – hands: left & right hands are mirror images but do not superimpose

63 63 Some molecules are like socks - two socks from pair are mirror images that are superimposable (sock and its mirror image are identical) Molecule/object that is superimposable on its mirror image is achiral; it is chiral if it is not superimposable on its mirror image Superimposable Mirror Images

64 All molecules have a mirror image – but for many molecules it is the same molecule (achiral)

65 65 Achiral Examples

66 Nonsuperimposable Mirror Images Mirror image cannot be rotated so all its atoms align with same atoms of original molecule – i.e., mirror image is not superimposable on original

67 Non-Superimposable Mirror Images Only when C attached to 4 different groups When this occurs, C variously referred to as a chiral center, asymmetric carbon, stereogenic center, or stereocenter

68 Examine each tetrahedral carbon atom and look at four groups (not the four atoms) bonded to it If groups all different, have a chiral (stereogenic) center Identifying Chiral Centers

69 Chiral Molecules - Entantiomers A pair of nonsuperimposable mirror images are called a pair of enantiomers – these molecules will be optical isomers of each other

70 Chirality – Optical Isomers Louis Pasteur discovered 2 forms of crystallized tartaric acid; forms were mirror images of each other called right and left- handed forms

71 Non-Superimposable Mirror Images Chiral molecule – mirror images are enantiomers (optical isomers)

72 Non-Superimposable Mirror Images Chiral molecule – mirror images are enantiomers (optical isomers)

73 2-chlorobutane Non-Superimposable Mirror Images

74 butan-2-ol Non-Superimposable Mirror Images

75 Earlier in presentation, structural isomers of heptane (C 7 H 14 ) were determined Some of these isomers are optically active (following slide) Return to Heptane – Optical Isomers

76 Structural Isomers of C 7 H 16 (Heptane) Isomers marked with * have asymmetric carbons (have enantiomers – optical isomers) * *

77 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach77 Optical Isomers of 3-methylhexane

78 Optical isomers have the same physical* and chemical properties except in chemical reactions where chirality is important Chiral molecules often react differently with other chiral molecules; similar to idea that right hand does not fit a left handed glove – molecule must be correct shape to fit molecule it is reacting with * Except for their rotation of polarized light Properties of Optical Isomers

79 Many natural molecules are chiral and most natural reactions are affected by optical isomerism; e.g. D- & L-amino acids! Many drugs are optically active, with only one enantiomer being beneficial (or harmful, e.g. thalidomide Impact of Chirality

80 Geometric (Cis-trans) Other diastereomers (>1 chiral centers) Diastereomers Enantiomers (optical) Types of Isomers Structural (Constitutional) Stereoisomers (Configurational) All Isomers

81 Geometric (Cis-trans) Other diastereomers (>1 chiral centers) Diastereomers Enantiomers (optical) Types of Isomers Structural (Constitutional) Stereoisomers (Configurational) All Isomers

82 Stereoisomers – No Chiral Centers Single covalent bonds can easily rotate - what appears to be a different structure is not All structures above are the same (not isomers) because C-C bonds have free rotation

83 Stereoisomers – No Chiral Centers A double bond between carbon atoms prevents free rotation – structure is locked into place

84 Stereoisomers – No Chiral Centers Groups on same or opposite sides of double bond – diastereomers (spatially different but not mirror images)

85 Geometrical Isomers When double bonds involved, diastereomers are referred to as geometrical isomers Although cis and trans modifiers to names are traditional, official naming system uses E and Z modifiers

86 Isomers with CHO Compounds With carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO) present, isomers become more varied Rule: O in these compounds forms 2 bonds O found in form of alcohol (C  OH), ether (C  O  C), or carbonyl (C=O) group

87 Isomers of C 3 H 8 O 2 structural isomers in form of alcohol 1 structural isomer in form of ether propan-1-ol propan-2-ol ethyl methyl ether

88 Isomers of C 4 H 10 O 4 structural isomers in form of alcohol butan-1-ol butan-2-ol 2-methylpropan-1-ol 2-methylpropan-2-ol * chiral center *

89 Isomers of C 4 H 10 O 3 structural isomers in form of ether 1-methoxypropane 2-methoxypropane diethyl ether

90 Isomers of C 4 H 10 O 1 chiral center  2 optical isomers (2S)-butan-2-ol(2R)-butan-2-ol butan-2-ol *

91 Isomers of C 4 H 10 O 8 total isomers

92 Summary – Isomers of C 4 H 10 O 4 structural isomers in form of alcohol 1 alcohol has a chiral center  2 enantiomers (optical isomers) 5 total isomers in form of alcohol 3 structural isomers in form of ether 0 chiral centers 3 total isomers in form of ether 8 total isomers (7 structural)

93 Molecular Formula Possible # Isomers Molecular Formula Possible # Isomers C2H6OC2H6O2C 9 H 20 O405 C3H8OC3H8O3C 10 H 22 O989 C 4 H 10 O7C 11 H 24 O~2430 C 5 H 12 O14C 12 H 32 O~6070 C 6 H 14 O32 C 7 H 16 O72 C 8 H 18 O171 # of C n H 2n+2 O Structural Isomers

94 Structural Isomers Summary – Isomers


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