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Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Solid Oxide Micro Fuel Cells: a Strategy for Efficient and Clean.

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Presentation on theme: "Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Solid Oxide Micro Fuel Cells: a Strategy for Efficient and Clean."— Presentation transcript:

1 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Solid Oxide Micro Fuel Cells: a Strategy for Efficient and Clean use of Hydrocarbon Fuels Alex Ignatiev Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston, Houston, TX Astana, May, 2011

2 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Future of Hydrocarbon Fuels Oil Production is Down Natural Gas Production is Up Efficient Use of Natural Gas Gas Turbine: 30-35% Efficiency Fuel Cell: 60+ % Efficient……. Use Fuel Cells ….

3 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Energy Ecology Massive Municipal Solid Waste Generation …. Landfill ….. No Energy Benefit Syngas: H 2 + CO Convert to H 2 +CO 2 Use Fuel Cells ….. Gasify and Generate Fuel …. Significant Energy Benefit

4 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hydrogen and oxygen reactants ZrO 3 electrolyte Nickel anode Operating temperature is °C Encapsulation materials challenges High materials costs But, High Efficiency > 60% High market cost How to Reduce market cost …. ??

5 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Apply Thin Film Materials Expertise to SOFC Challenges Develop New Design: Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Thin Film Heterostructure Design - Thin electrolyte- lower temperature operation - Atomically ordered films/interfaces- lower resistance Microelectronics Processing - Economies of Scale Lower Fabrication Cost Smaller Size Lower Cost

6 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Thin Film SOFC Heterostructure Growth Thin Film Atomically Ordered YSZ Electrolyte Reduce Internal Defects Reduce Interface Defects Epitaxial Growth Pulsed Laser Deposition of Epitaxial YSZ Film on Crystalline Nickel Foil Substrate

7 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Thin Film Heterostructure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Total Cell Thickness ~  m thick Porous LaSrCoO 3 Cathode ~ 1  m thick Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Thin Film Electrolyte ~  m thick Nickel Anode ~20  m thick Fuel Oxygen/Air Ni Foil Anode NOT Porous

8 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Electrochemically Etched Nickel Anode 60  m Etched Pores Nickel Side Electro-etch Ni Porosity - Microelectronics Photolithography / Etching

9 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM TFSOFC I vs. V as a Function of Temperature Hydrogen / Air - Polycrystalline Single Cell Thin Film Micro SOFC

10 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Thin Film Heterostructure SOFC Advancement Hydrocarbon Fuel Operation Methane/Methanol Ethane/Ethanol Operate at ~ 500 C Reduced/Eliminated ‘coking’ of Anode No Catalyst Needed – Self Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell Exhaust Water Vapor CO 2 Sequester CO 2 ECHO Black BoxThin Film SOFC Cleaner Environment

11 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Thin Film Fuel Cell Stack Components Cell Element Oxidant Flow Fuel Flow Interconnect

12 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Fuel Cell Stack Design (In Progress) TFSOFC Micro-patterned Interconnect cathode electrolyte anode Fuel flow Oxidant flow Thin Film Heterostructure SOFC Advancement Projected > 5W/cm 3 at ~500 o C

13 Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Research Partnership Center CAM Summary A New Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design Efficient, Clean, Compact and Cost Efficient Low Temperature Operation – Direct Use of Hydrocarbon Fuel Natural Gas Syngas from Solid Waste Gasification Direct Capture & Sequester CO 2 Distributed Energy Automotive Energy Strategy for Efficient, Clean Electrical Energy Generation


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