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Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties

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Presentation on theme: "Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties"— Presentation transcript:

1 Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties
Crude Oil Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties

2 Crude oil is found in the Earth’s crust
Formation of Oil Crude oil is found in the Earth’s crust It was formed from the remains of sea creatures that lived millions of years ago It is a fossil fuel Formation of Oil

3 Formation of oil and gas
1) Layers of dead sea _____ settle on the seabed. 2) Layers of __________ rock build up on top. 3) The heat and ________ from these rocks, along with the absence of ______, mean that oil and gas are formed over ______ of years. Words – sedimentary, millions, oxygen, creatures, pressure

4 Formation of Oil Formation of Oil

5 Finding Oil Finding Oil

6 Crude oil contains a mixture of hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons have different lengths and therefore different boiling points They can be separated by fractional distillation Each fraction is put to a different use depending on the properties of the hydrocarbon Crude Oil

7 Crude Oil Crude Oil

8 Distillation Crude Oil

9 Uses of hydrocarbons Most of the hydrocarbons present in crude oil can be used as fuels because they burn easily and give out a lot of heat energy. As the chain length increases they become less flammable and so purification is aimed to make simple mixtures containing similar molecules with similar behaviour. Crude Oil

10 Fractional Distillation

11 Fractional distillation
Crude oil can be separated by fractional distillation. The oil is evaporated and the hydrocarbon chains of different lengths condense at different temperatures: Fractions with low boiling points condense at the top Fractions with high boiling points condense at the bottom

12 The longer the carbon chain the; Higher the boiling point
Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon is a molecule which contains hydrogen and carbon atoms only The longer the carbon chain the; Higher the boiling point Less volatile it is More viscous it is Less flammable it is Hydrocarbons

13 Comparing hydrocarbons

14 Which is a correct statement about crude oil?
A mixture of carbohydrates. Formed by the decay of dead sea creatures. Consist of a mixture of very large molecules. Is purified in an oil rig.

15 Which is a correct statement about fractional
distillation? Oil is separated into fractions with the same size molecule. Oil is separated into fractions with the same density. Oil is separated into fractions with similar size molecules. Oil is separated into alkanes and alkenes.

16 Which is a correct order for these fractions working down from the top of the column?
Fuel gas, kerosine, petrol, diesel, bitumen. Fuel gas, diesel, kerosine, petrol, bitumen. Fuel gas, petrol, diesel, kerosine, bitumen. Fuel gas, petrol, kerosine, diesel, bitumen.

17 Which of these is a true statement about the changes that occur as hydrocarbon molecules get larger?
Boiling point decreases. Viscosity increases. Flammability increases. Transparency increases.

18 Problems caused by burning hydrocarbons
When a hydrocarbon burns carbon dioxide and water are made. E.g. CH4 + 3O2 → CO2+ 2H2O Carbon dioxide adds to the greenhouse effect. All fuels also contain sulphur impurities from the original sea creatures. When the sulphur burns in an engine sulphur dioxide is made. Sulphur dioxide adds to acid rain Hydrocarbons


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