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Crude Oil Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties.

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Presentation on theme: "Crude Oil Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crude Oil Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties

2 1.Crude oil is found in the Earth’s crust 2.It was formed from the remains of sea creatures that lived millions of years ago 3.It is a fossil fuel Formation of Oil

3 Formation of oil and gas 1) Layers of dead sea _____ settle on the seabed. 2) Layers of __________ rock build up on top. 3) The heat and ________ from these rocks, along with the absence of ______, mean that oil and gas are formed over ______ of years. Words – sedimentary, millions, oxygen, creatures, pressure

4 Formation of Oil

5 Finding Oil

6 1.Crude oil contains a mixture of hydrocarbons 2.Hydrocarbons have different lengths and therefore different boiling points 3.They can be separated by fractional distillation 4.Each fraction is put to a different use depending on the properties of the hydrocarbon Crude Oil

7

8 Distillation

9 Most of the hydrocarbons present in crude oil can be used as fuels because they burn easily and give out a lot of heat energy. As the chain length increases they become less flammable and so purification is aimed to make simple mixtures containing similar molecules with similar behaviour. Uses of hydrocarbons Crude Oil

10 Fractional Distillation

11 Fractional distillation Crude oil can be separated by fractional distillation. The oil is evaporated and the hydrocarbon chains of different lengths condense at different temperatures: Fractions with low boiling points condense at the top Fractions with high boiling points condense at the bottom

12 1.A hydrocarbon is a molecule which contains hydrogen and carbon atoms only 2.The longer the carbon chain the; Higher the boiling point Less volatile it is More viscous it is Less flammable it is Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons

13 Comparing hydrocarbons

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Which is a correct statement about crude oil? A.A mixture of carbohydrates. B.Formed by the decay of dead sea creatures. C.Consist of a mixture of very large molecules. D.Is purified in an oil rig.

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Which is a correct statement about fractional distillation? A.Oil is separated into fractions with the same size molecule. B.Oil is separated into fractions with the same density. C.Oil is separated into fractions with similar size molecules. D.Oil is separated into alkanes and alkenes.

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Which is a correct order for these fractions working down from the top of the column? A. Fuel gas, kerosine, petrol, diesel, bitumen. B. Fuel gas, diesel, kerosine, petrol, bitumen. C. Fuel gas, petrol, diesel, kerosine, bitumen. D. Fuel gas, petrol, kerosine, diesel, bitumen.

17 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Which of these is a true statement about the changes that occur as hydrocarbon molecules get larger? A.Boiling point decreases. B.Viscosity increases. C.Flammability increases. D.Transparency increases.

18 1.When a hydrocarbon burns carbon dioxide and water are made. 2.E.g. CH 4 + 3O 2 → CO 2 + 2H 2 O 3.Carbon dioxide adds to the greenhouse effect. 4.All fuels also contain sulphur impurities from the original sea creatures. When the sulphur burns in an engine sulphur dioxide is made. 5.Sulphur dioxide adds to acid rain Problems caused by burning hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons


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