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1 Hydrogen Economy and Fuel Cells. 2 Some Driving Comments The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world’s.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Hydrogen Economy and Fuel Cells. 2 Some Driving Comments The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Hydrogen Economy and Fuel Cells

2 2 Some Driving Comments The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases

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4 4 Some Driving Comments The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world population is increasing The world population is increasing

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6 6 Some Driving Comments The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world population is increasing The world population is increasing There is not an infinite supply of oil and natural gas There is not an infinite supply of oil and natural gas

7 7 Some Driving Comments The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world population is increasing The world population is increasing There is not an infinite supply of oil and natural gas There is not an infinite supply of oil and natural gas Nuclear power is serious safety concern Nuclear power is serious safety concern

8 8 Some Driving Comments The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world population is increasing The world population is increasing There is not an infinite supply of oil and natural gas There is not an infinite supply of oil and natural gas Nuclear power is serious safety concern Nuclear power is serious safety concern Pollution of greenhouse gasses a global issue Pollution of greenhouse gasses a global issue

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11 11 Some Driving Comments The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world’s appetite for energy is increasing as the standard of living increases The world population is increasing The world population is increasing There is not an infinite supply of oil and natural gas There is not an infinite supply of oil and natural gas Nuclear power is serious safety concern Nuclear power is serious safety concern Pollution of greenhouse gasses a global issue Pollution of greenhouse gasses a global issue

12 12 Energy Needs Current energy distribution system based on inventoryCurrent energy distribution system based on inventory It needs to be regenerableIt needs to be regenerable Current energy infrastructure based on real time and inventoryCurrent energy infrastructure based on real time and inventory Wind/Tidal/PhotovoltaicReal TimeWind/Tidal/PhotovoltaicReal Time Oil/gasInventoryOil/gasInventory NuclearInventoryNuclearInventory Only input of new energy to Earth is SolarOnly input of new energy to Earth is Solar

13 13 Current Hydrocarbon Energy Delivery Based on oxidation of dead plants and animals (Solar Energy Inventory) C+O 2 =CO 2 H 2 +O 2 =2H 2 O Based on oxidation of dead plants and animals (Solar Energy Inventory) C+O 2 =CO 2 2H 2 +O 2 =2H 2 O Although carbon oxidation generates a lot of energy it also generates the most significant Green House Gas CO 2 Although carbon oxidation generates a lot of energy it also generates the most significant Green House Gas CO 2 Combustion of Hydrogen has no environmental impact Combustion of Hydrogen has no environmental impact Hydrogen can be regenerated in a number of processes Hydrogen can be regenerated in a number of processes

14 14 Current Hydrocarbon Energy Delivery Based on oxidation of dead plants and animals (Solar Energy Inventory) C+O 2 =CO 2 H 2 +O 2 =2H 2 O Based on oxidation of dead plants and animals (Solar Energy Inventory) C+O 2 =CO 2 H 2 +O 2 =2H 2 O Although carbon oxidation generates a lot of energy it is also the most significant Green House Gas Although carbon oxidation generates a lot of energy it is also the most significant Green House Gas Combustion of Hydrogen has no environmental impact Combustion of Hydrogen has no environmental impact Hydrogen can be regenerated in a number of processes Hydrogen can be regenerated in a number of processes A Hydrogen vs. Hydrocarbon based Economy may be a better alternate

15 15 Why Hydrogen Economy? Hydrogen has one of the highest energy/kg Hydrogen has one of the highest energy/kg Hydrogen oxidation has only water as an emission Hydrogen oxidation has only water as an emission Hydrogen is non toxic to humans Hydrogen is non toxic to humans More secure supply of energy More secure supply of energy Only sustainable source of energy distribution Only sustainable source of energy distribution

16 16 Hydrogen Infrastructure Issues Hydrogen bomb Hydrogen bomb Hindenberg Hindenberg

17 17 Hydrogen Infrastructure Issues Hydrogen Bomb fearHydrogen Bomb fear We are not working in Nuclear energy rangeWe are not working in Nuclear energy range Hindenberg FearHindenberg Fear 33 of 35 people killed resulted from jumping33 of 35 people killed resulted from jumping 2 of 35 were killed by burning from the flammable skin and diesel Fuel Fire2 of 35 were killed by burning from the flammable skin and diesel Fuel Fire The H 2 fire burned for 60 sec (7.2MM ft 3 )The H 2 fire burned for 60 sec (7.2MM ft 3 ) The diesel fire burned for 10hrs.The diesel fire burned for 10hrs. All that survived rode the ship to the groundAll that survived rode the ship to the ground

18 18 Physical Data Heat of Combustion, BTU/lb Autoignition Temp, Deg F Flame Temp, Deg F Flammability Limit, % in air Flame speed, ft/sec Hydrogen51, Deg F % 8.7 ft/sec Methane21, Deg F % 1.4 ft/sec Propane19, Deg F % 1.5 ft/sec Gasoline19, Deg F % 1.1 ft/sec

19 19 Conclusions Hydrogen flames are no hotter than other gas flames Hydrogen flames are no hotter than other gas flames Hydrogen is 15 times lighter than air so it disperses quickly up Hydrogen is 15 times lighter than air so it disperses quickly up Hydrogen fires take place in 1/10 the time of other hydrocarbon fires Hydrogen fires take place in 1/10 the time of other hydrocarbon fires Hydrogen fires are colorless and therefore have little radiant heat transfer Hydrogen fires are colorless and therefore have little radiant heat transfer Hydrogen is not toxic to humans Hydrogen is not toxic to humans Humans can stand a lot of heat…but not for very long Humans can stand a lot of heat…but not for very long

20 20 Why Fuel Cells? Hydrogen vs. gasoline for automobiles Gasoline well to wheel efficiency=~14% Fuel cell efficiency well to wheel =42% Hydrogen vs. coal/oil for make electricity Fossil Fuel to electricity=30-35% Hydrogen= 72-85% Fuel Cells are small enough to consider distributed generation Justifies Combined Heat and Power at home >90% eff. Permits generation of H2 for cars 10$/tankful Hydrogen can be regenerated thru known processes based on the solar input

21 21 Skills necessary to Compete Process Engineering/System EngineeringProcess Engineering/System Engineering Heat transferHeat transfer Mass transferMass transfer Momentum transferMomentum transfer Simultaneous TransferSimultaneous Transfer Reaction KineticsReaction Kinetics Process SimulationProcess Simulation Process ControlsProcess Controls Materials (Strength and properties)Materials (Strength and properties) Hydrogen diffusion into metalsHydrogen diffusion into metals Electrochemical reaction designElectrochemical reaction design Safety design (Hazop/Max Creditable Accident)Safety design (Hazop/Max Creditable Accident) 6 Sigma approach to design, manufacturing, maintenance and quality (Black belt)6 Sigma approach to design, manufacturing, maintenance and quality (Black belt)


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