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The chemistry of carbon compounds Sometimes called carbon chemistry
Organic Chemistry The backbone element in the molecules of all living things is carbon
Carbon Chemistry Carbon is one of the only elements that can form long chains Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds
Organic Chemistry Carbon forms covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and the halogens
Compounds whose molecular structures contain only carbon & hydrogen
Hydrocarbons CH 4 C 5 H 10 C 3 H 8 C 18 H 36 C 6 H 6 C x H 2y
Nomenclature Naming compounds Rules made by IUPAC International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry
Nomenclature Prefix: Indicates # of carbons in the group Suffix: Indicates the type of organic compd
Organic Prefixes 1 =meth-6 = hex- 2 =eth-7 =hept- 3 =prop-8 =oct- 4 =but-9 =non- 5 =pent-10 =dec-
Organic Suffixes -aneSat hydrocarbon -eneDB hydrocarbon -yneTB hydrocarbon -olAlcohol -oneKetoneetc
Hydrocarbons containing only single covalent bonds
Alkanes All hydrocarbons with no multiple bonds end with the suffix -ane Prefix: Alk- any length carbon chain
Alkanes 1 = methane6 = hexane 2 = ethane7 = heptane 3 = propane8 = octane 4 = butane9 = nonane 5 = pentane10 = decane
Drill Name & give the molecular formula for alkanes with 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5 carbons
Alkane Chemical Formula C n H 2n+2
Name each of the following: C 5 H 12 C 3 H 8 C 8 H 18
Saturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon with the maximum number of hydrogens possible
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon with less than the maximum number of hydrogens possible
Formula Writing Molecular Formula C 4 H 10
Formula Writing Condensed structural formula, C-C & C-H bonds understood CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3
Formula Writing Condensed structural formula, only C-H bonds understood CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3
Formula Writing Condensed structural formula, bonds understood & repeats in () CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3
Formula Writing Carbon skeleton, C-H bonds omitted C-C-C-C
Formula Writing Complete structural formula HHHH HCCCCH HHHH
Stick or minimal Structures
Stick Structures Line ends & joints represent carbons Hydrogens understood Others draw
Draw the following Propaneoctane hexanepentane butanemethane heptaneethane
Draw the following 5-butyl-3-ethyl-4- cyclohexyl-,2,2- dimethyl-6- propylnonane
Name the following
Branched Chains When an alkane chain gets another hydrocarbon group substituted onto it Branches: sidechains
Branched Chains C C C C C C C C C C
Naming Branched Chains
1) Find the longest continuous carbon chain & name it as the main chain. The final name will end with the naming of the main chain
CHexane C C C
2) Number each carbon in the chain; so that, the side chains will be connected to the lowest possible numbers on the carbons
CHexane C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 C C C
3) Name the side chains or substituted groups, & precede them with the # of the carbon they are connected to & a dash
C 2-methyl C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 C C C 2-methyl 4-ethyl
4) If identical groups appear more than once, use prefixes: di for 2, tri for 3, tetra for 4, penta for 5, etc Examples: dimethyl, tripropyl, etc
C 2,2-dimethyl C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 C C C 4-ethyl
5) Name the sidechains or groups in alphabetical order, but ignore the prefixes when doing so ·Examples: ethyl comes before dimethyl, e < m
6) Separate numbers with commas, use hyphens between words & numbers, and write the alkanes as one word ·Example: dimethylhexane
C C C C 4-ethyl-2,2-dimethylhexane
Drill: Name CH 3 CH 2 H 3 C-CH-CH 2 -CH-CH-CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3
Deriving Structures from Names Draw the main chain first –Look the name ending Draw the branches –Look the # & group name
Draw: 3,4-diethyl-2-methyloctane 2,3,5-trimethylhexane 5-butyl-3-ethyl-2,6,8- trimethyl-4-propyldecane
Drill: Draw: 5-butyl-3-ethyl- 2,6,8,9-tetramethyl- 4,7-dipropyldecane
Isomers Compounds that have the same chemical formula, but different shapes
Drill: Show each step of the decomposition of U-238 thru the following radiations:
Alkanes. Hydrocarbons containing only single covalent bonds.
Drill: Give the molecular formula & the condensed, skeletal, and complete structures of a hydrocarbon with the same # of carbons as the # of letters in.
Alkanes. Carbon has 4 bonding electrons Carbon can bond to itself in chains or rings.
Topic: Alkanes Do Now: Draw the possible bonds a single carbon atom can have if it has a bonding capacity of 4.
Organic molecules contain both carbon and hydrogen. Though many organic chemicals also contain other elements, it is the carbon-hydrogen bond that defines.
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Organic Chemistry Topic 10.1 CHONCCHONC bonds.
Organic Chemistry Topic – CHONCCHONC bonds.
Organic Nomenclature Alkanes SWBAT: Name alkanes with alkyl groups.
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