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Organic Chemistry. The chemistry of carbon compounds Sometimes called carbon chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry. The chemistry of carbon compounds Sometimes called carbon chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry

2 The chemistry of carbon compounds Sometimes called carbon chemistry

3 Organic Chemistry The backbone element in the molecules of all living things is carbon

4 Carbon Chemistry Carbon is one of the only elements that can form long chains Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds

5 Organic Chemistry Carbon forms covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and the halogens

6 Hydrocarbons

7 Compounds whose molecular structures contain only carbon & hydrogen

8 Hydrocarbons CH 4 C 5 H 10 C 3 H 8 C 18 H 36 C 6 H 6 C x H 2y

9 Nomenclature Naming compounds Rules made by IUPAC International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry

10 Nomenclature Prefix: Indicates # of carbons in the group Suffix: Indicates the type of organic compd

11 Organic Prefixes 1 =meth-6 = hex- 2 =eth-7 =hept- 3 =prop-8 =oct- 4 =but-9 =non- 5 =pent-10 =dec-

12 Organic Suffixes -aneSat hydrocarbon -eneDB hydrocarbon -yneTB hydrocarbon -olAlcohol -oneKetoneetc

13 Alkanes

14 Hydrocarbons containing only single covalent bonds

15 Alkanes All hydrocarbons with no multiple bonds end with the suffix -ane Prefix: Alk- any length carbon chain

16 Alkanes 1 = methane6 = hexane 2 = ethane7 = heptane 3 = propane8 = octane 4 = butane9 = nonane 5 = pentane10 = decane

17 Drill Name & give the molecular formula for alkanes with 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5 carbons

18 Alkane Chemical Formula C n H 2n+2

19 Name each of the following: C 5 H 12 C 3 H 8 C 8 H 18

20 Saturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon with the maximum number of hydrogens possible

21 Unsaturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon with less than the maximum number of hydrogens possible

22 Formula Writing Molecular Formula C 4 H 10

23 Formula Writing Condensed structural formula, C-C & C-H bonds understood CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3

24 Formula Writing Condensed structural formula, only C-H bonds understood CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3

25 Formula Writing Condensed structural formula, bonds understood & repeats in () CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3

26 Formula Writing Carbon skeleton, C-H bonds omitted C-C-C-C

27 Formula Writing Complete structural formula HHHH HCCCCH HHHH

28 Stick or minimal Structures

29 Stick Structures Line ends & joints represent carbons Hydrogens understood Others draw

30 Draw the following Propaneoctane hexanepentane butanemethane heptaneethane

31 Draw the following 5-butyl-3-ethyl-4- cyclohexyl-,2,2- dimethyl-6- propylnonane

32 Name the following

33 Branched Alkanes

34 Branched Chains When an alkane chain gets another hydrocarbon group substituted onto it Branches: sidechains

35 Branched Chains C C C C C C C C C C

36 Naming Branched Chains

37 1) Find the longest continuous carbon chain & name it as the main chain. The final name will end with the naming of the main chain

38 CHexane C C C

39 2) Number each carbon in the chain; so that, the side chains will be connected to the lowest possible numbers on the carbons

40 CHexane C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 C C C

41 3) Name the side chains or substituted groups, & precede them with the # of the carbon they are connected to & a dash

42 C 2-methyl C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 C C C 2-methyl 4-ethyl

43 4) If identical groups appear more than once, use prefixes: di for 2, tri for 3, tetra for 4, penta for 5, etc Examples: dimethyl, tripropyl, etc

44 C 2,2-dimethyl C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 C C C 4-ethyl

45 5) Name the sidechains or groups in alphabetical order, but ignore the prefixes when doing so ·Examples: ethyl comes before dimethyl, e < m

46 6) Separate numbers with commas, use hyphens between words & numbers, and write the alkanes as one word ·Example: dimethylhexane

47 C C C C 4-ethyl-2,2-dimethylhexane

48 Drill: Name CH 3 CH 2 H 3 C-CH-CH 2 -CH-CH-CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3

49 Deriving Structures from Names Draw the main chain first –Look the name ending Draw the branches –Look the # & group name

50 Draw: 3,4-diethyl-2-methyloctane 2,3,5-trimethylhexane 5-butyl-3-ethyl-2,6,8- trimethyl-4-propyldecane

51 Drill: Draw: 5-butyl-3-ethyl- 2,6,8,9-tetramethyl- 4,7-dipropyldecane

52 Isomers Compounds that have the same chemical formula, but different shapes


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