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Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 7 th edition, Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 7 th edition, Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 7 th edition, Chapter 8

2 2 Alkynes Hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds Our study of alkynes provides an introduction to organic synthesis, the preparation of organic molecules from simpler organic molecules

3 3 Alkynes Acetylene, the simplest alkyne, is produced industrially from methane and steam at high temperature

4 4 8.1 Naming Alkynes General hydrocarbon rules apply with “yne” as a suffix indicating an alkyne Numbering of chain with triple bond is set so that the smallest number possible includes the triple bond

5 5 Diynes, Enynes, and Triynes A compound with two triple bonds is a diyne  An enyne has a double bond and triple bond  A triyne has three triple bonds Number from chain that ends nearest a double or triple bond – double bonds are preferred if both are present in the same relative position

6 6 Diynes, Enynes, and Triynes

7 Problem 8.1: IUPAC names? 7

8 8 8.2 Preparation of Alkynes: Elimination Reactions of Dihalides Treatment of a 1,2 dihaloalkane with KOH or NaOH produces a two-fold elimination of HX Vicinal dihalides are available from addition of bromine or chlorine to an alkene

9 9 8.2 Preparation of Alkynes: Elimination Reactions of Dihalides Intermediate is a vinyl halide

10 10 8.3 Reactions of Alkynes: Addition of HX and X 2 Addition reactions of alkynes are similar to those of alkenes Intermediate alkene reacts further with excess reagent Regiospecificity according to Markovnikov

11 11 Electronic Structure of Alkynes The triple bond is shorter and stronger than single or double Breaking a π bond in acetylene (HCCH) requires 318 kJ/mole (in ethylene it is 268 kJ/mole)

12 12 8.4 Reactions of Alkynes: Addition of HX and X 2

13 13 Addition of Bromine and Chlorine Initial addition gives trans intermediate Product with excess reagent is tetrahalide

14 14 Addition of HX to Alkynes Involves Vinylic Carbocations Addition of H-X to alkyne should produce a vinylic carbocation intermediate  Secondary vinyl carbocations form less readily than primary alkyl carbocations  Primary vinyl carbocations probably do not form at all

15 15 Vinylic carbocations

16 16 8.4 Hydration of Alkynes Addition of H-OH as in alkenes  Mercury (II) catalyzes Markovinikov oriented addition  Hydroboration-oxidation gives the non-Markovnikov product

17 17 Mercury(II)-Catalyzed Hydration of Alkynes Mercuric ion (as the sulfate) is a Lewis acid catalyst that promotes addition of water in Markovnikov orientation The immediate product is a vinylic alcohol, or enol, which spontaneously transforms to a ketone

18 18 Keto-enol Tautomerism Isomeric compounds that can rapidily interconvert by the movement of a proton are called tautomers and the phenomenon is called tautomerism Enols rearrange to the isomeric ketone by the rapid transfer of a proton from the hydroxyl to the alkene carbon The keto form is usually so stable compared to the enol that only the keto form can be observed

19 19 Keto-enol Tautomerism

20 20 Hydration of Unsymmetrical Alkynes If the alkyl groups at either end of the C-C triple bond are not the same, both products can form. Hydration of a terminal always gives the methyl ketone

21 21

22 22 Hydroboration/Oxidation of Alkynes BH 3 (borane) adds to alkynes to give a vinylic borane Oxidation with H 2 O 2 produces an enol that converts to the ketone or aldehyde: anti-Markovnikov

23 23 Comparison of Hydration of Terminal Alkynes Hydroboration/oxidation converts terminal alkynes to aldehydes because addition of water is non-Markovnikov

24 24 8.5 Reduction of Alkynes Addition of H 2 over a metal catalyst (such as palladium on carbon, Pd/C) converts alkynes to alkanes (complete reduction) The addition of the first equivalent of H 2 produces an alkene, which is more reactive than the alkyne so the alkene is not observed

25 25 Incomplete reduction: Conversion of Alkynes to cis-Alkenes Addition of H 2 using chemically deactivated palladium on calcium carbonate as a catalyst (the Lindlar catalyst) produces a cis alkene The two hydrogens add syn (from the same side of the triple bond)

26 26 7-cis-Retinol synthesis (Hoffmann-LaRoche):

27 27 Incomplete reduction: Conversion of Alkynes to trans-Alkenes Anhydrous ammonia (NH 3 ) is a liquid below -33 ºC  Alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia and function as reducing agents Alkynes are reduced to trans alkenes with sodium or lithium in liquid ammonia

28 28

29 29 8.7 Alkyne Acidity: Formation of Acetylide Anions Terminal alkynes are weak Brønsted acids (pK a ~ 25). Reaction of strong anhydrous bases with a terminal acetylene produces an acetylide ion The sp-hydbridization at carbon holds negative charge relatively close to the positive nucleus, stabilizing the anion.

30 30 Note: pK a of NH 3 is 33

31 31

32 32 8.8 Alkylation of Acetylide Anions Acetylide ions can react as nucleophiles as well as bases

33 33

34 34 8.8 Alkylation of Acetylide Anions Reaction with a primary alkyl halide produces a hydrocarbon that contains carbons from both partners, providing a general route to larger alkynes

35 35 Limitations of Alkyation of Acetylide Ions Reactions only are efficient with 1º alkyl bromides and alkyl iodides Reactions with 2º and 3º alkyl halides gives dehydrohalogenation, converting alkyl halide to alkene

36 36 Prob. 8.11: Which alkyne/alkyl halide combination would work?

37 37 8.9 An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Organic synthesis creates molecules by design Synthesis can produce new molecules that are needed as drugs or materials Syntheses can be designed and tested to improve the efficiency and safety of making known molecules Highly advanced syntheses are used to test ideas and methods, confirm structures, and demonstrate methods

38 38 Synthesis as a Tool for Learning Organic Chemistry In order to propose a synthesis you must be familiar with reactions  What they begin with  What they lead to  How they are accomplished  What the limitations are

39 39 Synthesis as a Tool for Learning Organic Chemistry A synthesis combines a series of proposed steps to go from a defined set of reactants to a specified product  Questions related to synthesis can include partial information about a reaction of series that the student completes (“roadmap” problem)

40 40 Strategies for Synthesis Compare the target and the starting material Consider reactions that efficiently produce the outcome. Look at the product and think of what can lead to it (retrosynthetic method) Example  Problem: prepare octane from 1-pentyne  Strategy: use acetylide coupling

41 41 Practice Prob. 8.1

42 42 Practice Prob 8.2:

43 43 Last step in the synthesis:

44 44 Making 2-hexyne:

45 45 Putting it together:

46 46 Prob. 8.37: Synthesize from acetylene

47 47 Prob. 8.40: Synthesize muscalure (house fly sex attractant)

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