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Slide 1 of 35 Chemistry 22.1. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 35 22.1 Hydrocarbons Gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene are examples of liquid.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 of 35 Chemistry 22.1. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 35 22.1 Hydrocarbons Gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene are examples of liquid."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 of 35 Chemistry 22.1

2 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of Hydrocarbons Gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene are examples of liquid fuels. A solid fuel, coal, produced the steam for the locomotives that pulled old-time trains. These fuels are mixtures of compounds called hydrocarbons. You will learn about the structure and properties of hydrocarbons.

3 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Hydrocarbons > Slide 3 of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons How is the number of valence electrons in carbon atoms related to the bonds that carbon atoms form?

4 Slide 4 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons Because carbon has four valence electrons, a carbon atom always forms four covalent bonds. The simplest organic compounds contain only carbon and hydrogen and are called hydrocarbons.

5 Slide 5 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons One carbon atom can form a single covalent bond with four hydrogen atoms.

6 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 6 of 35 Hydrocarbons > Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons Animation 28 Get a glimpse of the staggering variety of hydrocarbon compounds.

7 Slide 7 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons Ball-and-stick modelSpace-filling model Formulas and Models for Methane and Ethane

8 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Hydrocarbons > Slide 8 of Alkanes What are two possible arrangements of carbon atoms in an alkane?

9 Slide 9 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes An alkane is a hydrocarbon in which there are only single covalent bonds. The carbon atoms in an alkane can be arranged in a straight chain or in a chain that has branches.

10 Slide 10 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes Straight-Chain Alkanes Ethane is the simplest of the straight-chain alkanes, which contain any number of carbon atoms, one after the other, in a chain.

11 Slide 11 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes A group of compounds forms a homologous series if there is a constant increment of change in molecular structure from one compound in the series to the next.

12 Slide 12 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes Hydrocarbons are used as fuels.

13 Slide 13 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes In a condensed structural formula, some bonds and/or atoms are left out of the structural formula. Although the bonds and atoms do not appear, they are there.

14 Slide 14 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes

15 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 15 of 35

16 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 16 of 35

17 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 17 of 35

18 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 18 of 35 Practice Problems for Conceptual Problem 22.1 Problem Solving 22.1 Solve Problem 1 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

19 Slide 19 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes Branched-Chain Alkanes An atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule is called a substituent.

20 Slide 20 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes A hydrocarbon substituent is called an alkyl group. An alkane with one or more alkyl groups is called a branched-chain alkane.

21 Slide 21 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Alkanes Ball-and-stick and space-filling models show the arrangement of atoms in 4-ethyl-2,3- dimethylheptane.

22 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 22 of 35

23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 23 of 35

24 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 24 of 35

25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 25 of 35 Practice Problems for Conceptual Problem 22.2 Problem Solving 22.3 Solve Problem 3 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

26 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 26 of 35

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28 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 28 of 35

29 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 29 of 35 Practice Problems for Conceptual Problem 22.3 Problem Solving 22.5 Solve Problem 5 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

30 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Hydrocarbons > Slide 30 of Properties of Alkanes In terms of their polarity, what type of molecules are alkanes?

31 Slide 31 of 35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.1 Hydrocarbons > Properties of Alkanes Molecules of hydrocarbons, such as alkanes, are nonpolar molecules. The nonpolar molecules in the oil spill are not attracted to the polar water molecules in the ocean.

32 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 32 of 35 Section Quiz -or- Continue to: Launch: Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 22.1 Section Quiz

33 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 33 of Section Quiz. 1. Choose the correct words for the spaces. Because carbon has ______ valence electrons, it can form ______________ bonds. a.four, four covalent b.four, four ionic c.six, six covalent d.six, four or fewer covalent

34 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 34 of Section Quiz. 2. Alkanes are hydrocarbons that contain only ___________ bonds. a.carbon-carbon b.single covalent c.carbon-hydrogen d.ionic

35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 35 of Section Quiz 3. Choose the correct words for the spaces. Hydrocarbons are highly soluble in _______ solvents because they are ________ molecules. a.nonpolar, nonpolar b.nonpolar, polar c.polar, nonpolar d.polar, polar

36 END OF SHOW


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