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Classifying Carbon Compounds: Use the structural formulas below to answer the following questions. 1. How many bonds does each carbon atom form in each.

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Presentation on theme: "Classifying Carbon Compounds: Use the structural formulas below to answer the following questions. 1. How many bonds does each carbon atom form in each."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classifying Carbon Compounds: Use the structural formulas below to answer the following questions. 1. How many bonds does each carbon atom form in each of the compounds shown? 2. What is the chemical formula for each compound? Use the format C X H Y. 3. Classify the compounds into two groups. 4. Explain the classification system. 5. Define “isomer”. 6. Which molecules are isomers of one another? 9.1 – Journal #1

2 1. Define “polar covalent molecule”. Give an example of a molecule that is polar and draw where the positive and negative charges are. 2. Which of the following is NOT a molecule: CO 2, H 2 O, N 2, CH 4, MgO. Now, explain WHY it isn’t a molecule. 3. What is the name for all of the molecules that contain Carbon and Hydrogen (it’s a vocabulary word). 9.1 – Journal #2

3 CARBON Structure, Bonds and Molecules

4 CARBON: Where is it in the Periodic Table? What is the atomic number and weight?

5 CARBON: What is the Lewis Dot Structure? How many electrons does it need? How many electrons does it need? FOUR FOUR How many bonds will it form? How many bonds will it form? FOUR FOUR What TYPE of bonds will it form? What TYPE of bonds will it form? COVALENT!!!! COVALENT!!!!

6 CARBON: What is the Lewis Dot Structure? What are all the ways Carbon can make FOUR COVALENT BONDS? What are all the ways Carbon can make FOUR COVALENT BONDS?

7 CARBON: What is the Lewis Dot Structure? All single covalent bonds ALKANES – a.k.a. Saturated Hydrocarbons This is ethane

8 DOUBLE covalent bond to ANOTHER Carbon ALKENES – a.k.a. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons This is ethene (or ethylene)

9 TRIPLE covalent bond to ANOTHER Carbon ALKYNES – also Unsaturated This is ethyne

10 CARBON: Unique in all the Universe! 6th most common element on Earth Basis for MANY, MANY molecules

11 Carbon comes in many forms. Covalently bonded to other elements. Caffeine Methane

12 To itself.Allotropes: different structural forms for an element CARBON: Unique in all the Universe! FullereneGraphite AdrenalineNicotine Diamond (network solid)

13 CARBON: Unique in all the Universe! In chains. Propane - hydrocarbon Vitamins ( Carotene) Fats

14 In rings. Benzene Fullerene Pyrene

15 In branches. DNA Fats - lipids

16 CARBON: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CARBON IS UNIQUE AND FORMS MANY MOLECULES ORGANIC: from LIVING THINGS – always contain Carbon and Hydrogen (sometimes O) INORGANIC: non-living, or man-made Glucose = carbohydrate C 6 H 12 O 6 Polyethylene = plastics, - C 2 H 4

17 Organic Molecules: HYDROCARBONS Number of carbon atoms AlkaneAlkane - Saturated AlkeneAlkyneCycloalkane 1Methane——— 2EthaneEtheneEthyne— 3PropanePropenePropyneCyclopropane 4ButaneButeneButyneCyclobutane 5PentanePentenePentyneCyclopentane 6HexaneHexeneHexyneCyclohexane 7HeptaneHepteneHeptyneCycloheptane 8OctaneOcteneOctyneCyclooctane 9NonaneNoneneNonyneCyclononane 10DecaneDeceneDecyneCyclodecane

18 Organic Molecules: HYDROCARBONS As you add more carbon to the hydrocarbon, the molecule becomes heavier and properties change.

19 Name Molecular Formula Molecular Mass Melting Point ( o C) Boiling Point ( o C) State (25 o C, 101.3k Pa) Density (liquid g cm -3, 20 o C) Uses methaneCH gas major compone nt of natural gas (fuel) ethaneC2H6C2H gas component of natural gas (fuel) propaneC3H8C3H gas component of liquefied petroleu m gas (LPG), bottled gas (fuel) butaneC 4 H gas component of liquefied petroleu m gas (LPG), cigarette lighters (fuel) pentaneC 5 H liquid0.626 component of petrol (fuel) hexaneC 6 H liquid0.659 component of petrol (fuel) decaneC 10 H liquid0.730 component of petrol (fuel) hexadecaneC 16 H liquid0.775 component of diesel fuel & heating oil eicosaneC 20 H solid

20 Organic Molecules: HYDROCARBONS How do we separate the different weights so we can use them? Fractional distillation. -refining4.htm VIDEO – REAL PLAYER

21 How do we use MANY hydrocarbons? COMBUSTION Burning coal: C + O2  CO2 Burning natural gas: CH4 + 2O2  CO2 + 2H2O Burning gasoline: 2C8H O2  16CO2 + 18H20 Incomplete combustion creates CO (Carbon monoxide) instead of CO2 Organic Molecules: Hydrocarbons

22 Often times fossil fuels contain the elements NITROGEN AND SULFUR. When they are burned, they combine with water and create ACID RAIN. ALL combustion creates CO2 CO2 + H2O  H2CO3(Carbonic acid) Combustion of gasoline creates NO2 NO2 + H2O  H2NO3(Nitric acid) Combustion of coal creates SO3 SO3 + H2O  H2SO4(Sulfuric acid)


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