Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry. Organ = Greek word for life Chemistry of living things- both animals and plants. Based on the element carbon, also Hydrogen,oxygen,"— Presentation transcript:
Organ = Greek word for life Chemistry of living things- both animals and plants. Based on the element carbon, also Hydrogen,oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur.
Carbon : special properties Carbon is the element that by itself, forms more compounds than all the other elements put together. Carbon forms four stable covalent bonds Carbon can form bonds to itself,producing long stable chains of carbon atoms. Carbon can form single,double and even triple bonds.
Organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon and sulfur chemistryscientific reactionsical compoundscarbon hydrogennitrogenoxygenhalogensphosphorussiliconsulfur
Organic compounds Because of their unique properties, multi- carbon compounds exhibit extremely large variety and the range of application of organic compounds is enormous. They form the basis of, or are important constituents of many products (paints, plastics, food, explosives, drugs, petrochemicals, to name but a few) and (apart from a very few exceptions) they form the basis of all earthly life processes.paintsplasticsfoodexplosives drugspetrochemicals
Description and nomenclature Classification is not possible without having a full description of the individual compounds. In contrast with inorganic chemistry, in which describing a chemical compound can be achieved by simply enumerating the chemical symbols of the elements present in the compound together with the number of these elements in the molecule,inorganic chemistrychemical compound elements in organic chemistry the relative arrangement of the atoms within a molecule must be added for a full description. One way of describing the molecule is by drawing its structural formula. structural formula
IUPAC It was realized that as the family of organic compounds grew, the system would have to be expanded and modified. This task was ultimately taken on by the International Union on Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Recognizing the fact that in the branch of biochemistry the complexity of organic structures increases, the IUPAC organization joined forces with the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IUBMB, to produce a list of joint recommendations on nomenclatureIUPACInternational Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Molecular models of caffeinecaffeine
HYDROCARBON In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.organic chemistryorganic compoundhydrogen carbon Hydrocarbons can be gases (e.g. methane and propane),gasesmethane propane liquids (e.g. hexane and benzene), waxes or low melting pointliquidshexanebenzene solids (e.g. paraffin wax and naphthalene) or polymers (e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene). solidsparaffin waxnaphthalene polymerspolyethylenepolypropylene polystyrene
Types of organic compounds Aliphatic = straight chain with C atom forming long backbone. Aromatic = C forms a ring Saturated = all the bonds between carbon atoms are single covalent bonds, ie C-C-C-C. Unsaturated = Carbon skeleton has at least one double or one triple bond. i.e. C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-
Saturated hydrocarbons Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) are the most simple of the hydrocarbon species and are composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen.alkanes The general formula for saturated hydrocarbons is C n H 2n+2. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and are either found as linear or branched species.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. Those with one double bond are called alkenes, with the formula C n H 2n (assuming non-cyclic structures). Those containing triple bonds are called alkynes, with general formula C n H 2n-2. Unsaturated hydrocarbons alkenesalkynes
Functional groups Organic compounds are classified according to functional groups. Organic compounds functional groups Functional groups form homologous series, i.e. compounds with very similar chemical properties. The simplest homologous series is the ALKANES. They are saturated hydrocarbons. They have a general formula C n H 2n+2
Functional groups Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Alcohols Aldehydes
Homologous series Number of carbon atoms AlkaneAlkeneAlkyne 1Methane CH 4 —— 2Ethane C2H8C2H8 EtheneEthyne 3Propane C 3 H 12 PropenePropyne 4 Butane Isobutane ButeneButyne 5 Pentane Isopentane Neopentane PentenePentyne 6HexaneHexeneHexyne 7HeptaneHepteneHeptyne 8OctaneOcteneOctyne 9NonaneNoneneNonyne 10Decane C 10 H 22 Decene Decyne
Isomers Definition: Isomers are organic compounds which have the same chemical formula but a different structural formula. Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called isomers.molecular formulastructural formulae isomers The knowledge of the chemical formula for an organic compound is not sufficient information because many isomers can exist.chemical formulaisomers Example : pentane C 5 H 10
Isomers of pentane
Naming Identify longest straight chain of C-C-C Remember that in 3D, rotation takes place around a single C – C covalent atom. Name straight chain based on number of C atoms. Check if there is a side chain, branch Identify functional group
Oil refinery : Fractional distillation
Crude oil The most important use of hydrocarbons is in the supply of energy. Combustion = hydrocarbons burn in oxygen. Crude oil cannot be used as it is. It has to be separated into fractions by fractional distillation. This takes place in a refinery.
Crude oil Raw or unprocessed crude oil is not useful in the form it comes in out of the ground. Although oil has been used directly as a burner fuel for steam vessel propulsion, the lighter elements form explosive vapors in the fuel tanks and so it is quite dangerous, especially so in warships. warships For this and many other uses, the oil needs to be separated into parts and refined before use in fuels and lubricants, and before some of the byproducts could be used. fuelslubricants
Petrochemicals petrochemical processes to form materials such as plastics, detergents, solvents, elastomers, and fibers such as nylon and polyesters. petrochemicalplasticsdetergentssolvents elastomersfibersnylon polyesters
Petroleum fossil fuels are used in ship, automobile and aircraft engines. These different hydrocarbons have different boiling points, which means they can be separated by distillation. Since the lighter liquid elements are in great demand for use in internal combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products. Petroleumfossil fuelsengineshydrocarbonsboiling points distillationhydrocarbons
Fractional distillation Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. Crude oilfractional distillation The fractions at the top of the fractionating column have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom.fractionating columnboiling points The heavy bottom fractions are often cracked into lighter, more useful products. All of the fractions are processed further in other refining unitscracked
Cracking In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e.g. light hydrocarbons) by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds.petroleum geologychemistryorganicmolecules hydrocarbonscarbon bonds The rate of cracking and the end products are strongly dependent on the temperature and presence of any catalysts.ratetemperature catalysts Cracking, also referred to as pyrolysis, is the breakdown of a large alkane into smaller, more useful alkenes and an alkane.pyrolysisalkanealkenes alkane Simply put, cracking hydrocarbons is when you break long chain hydrocarbons up into short ones
Products of crude oil Natural gas --Refinery gas. C1– C4 -2% Gasoline - petrol % C5 – C10 Gasoline Kerosene - jet aircraft fuels %, C11-C12 Kerosenejet aircraft fuels Diesel fuel – 15-20% Industrial heating, large ships Diesel fuel Fuel oil - Lubricating oils - Paraffin wax Fuel oil - Lubricating oilsParaffin wax Asphalt and Tar AsphaltTar Petroleum coke
Refinery gas burns cleanly with no soot and very few sulfur emissions, posing no ground or water pollution hazards. Large amounts of LPG can be stored in bulk tanks and can be buried underground if required. Alternatively, gas cylinders can be used.
Gasoline Gasoline or petrol is a liquid mixture primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines. It is petroleum-derived, and consists mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons, enhanced with iso- octane or the aromatic hydrocarbons toluene and benzene to increase its octane rating.liquidfuelinternal combustion enginespetroleum aliphatichydrocarbonsiso- octanearomatictoluenebenzeneoctane rating
Definition of octane rating The octane rating of a spark ignition engine fuel is the detonation resistance (anti-knock rating) compared to a mixture of iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane, an isomer of octane) and n-heptane.2,2,4-trimethylpentaneisomer octaneheptane By definition, iso-octane is assigned an octane rating of 100 and heptane is assigned an octane rating of zero. An 87- octane gasoline, for example, possesses the same anti- knock rating of a mixture of 87% (by volume) iso-octane and 13% (by volume) n-heptane. This does not mean, however, that the gasoline actually contains these hydrocarbons in these proportions. It simply means that it has the same detonation resistance as the described mixture.
Kerosene Kerosene is a thin, clear liquid formed from hydrocarbons, with density of g/cm 3. Kerosene is obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum between 150 °C and 275 °C, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains containing 12 to 15 carbon atoms.densityfractional distillationpetroleumC The name is derived from Greek keros (κηρός wax).Greek wax
Diesel Petroleum diesel, also called petrodiesel,  or fossil diesel is produced from petroleum and is a hydrocarbon mixture, obtained in the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200 °C and 350 °C at atmospheric pressure. petroleumhydrocarbon fractional distillationcrude oilatmospheric pressure
Fuel oil Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.fractionpetroleum distillation Broadly speaking, fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power.furnaceengine Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics.hydrocarbonalkanescycloalkanes aromatics
Lubricant A lubricant (sometimes referred to as a "Lube") is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction between them, improving efficiency and reducing wear.frictionefficiency wear They also have the function of dissolving foreign particles. Petroleum-based lubricants like Vaseline tend to dissolve petroleum products such as rubber and plastic, while water-based lubricants will dissolve polar chemicals. Vaseline
Wax Paraffin wax (or simply "paraffin", but see alternative name for kerosene, above) is mostly found as a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 47 °C to 64 °C. waxy Paraffin wax (C 25 H 52 )
asphalt The word asphalt is derived from the Greek ásphalton, ásphaltos (άσφαλτος), "flawless".Greek
Polymer A polymer is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. The simple building blocks are called monomers. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials with a variety of properties and purposes.moleculemacromoleculestructural unitscovalentchemical bondsplastic Polypropylene IUPAC name poly(propene) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references Well-known examples of polymers include plastics and proteins. A simple example is polypropylene, whose repeating unit structure is shown at the right.IUPAC namestandard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references plasticsproteinspolypropylene
Polymers Two types: Natural polymers are made by living organisms, such as starch. Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids play crucial roles in biological processes. A variety of other natural polymers exist, such as cellulose, which is the main constituent of wood and paper.Biopolymersproteinsnucleic acidscellulose Synthetic polymers + Man made.includes Bakelite, neoprene, nylon, PVC, polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, PVB, silicone, and many more. Synthetic polymers BakeliteneoprenenylonPVCpolystyrene polyacrylonitrilePVBsilicone
Polypropylene IUPAC namepoly(propene) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox referencesstandard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references
Polymers PETPolyethylene terephthalate - Fizzy drink bottles and oven-ready meal trays. HDPEHigh-density polyethylene - Bottles for milk and washing-up liquids. PVCPolyvinyl chloride - Food trays, cling film, bottles for squash, mineral water and shampoo. LDPELow density polyethylene - Carrier bags and bin liners. PPPolypropylene - Margarine tubs, microwaveable meal trays. PSPolystyrene - Yoghurt pots, foam meat or fish trays, hamburger boxes and egg cartons, vending cups, plastic cutlery, protective packaging for electronic goods and toys. OTHERAny other plastics that do not fall into any of the above categories. - An example is melamine, which is often used in plastic plates and cups
Benefits of plastics The considerable growth in plastic use is due to the beneficial properties of plastics. These include: Extreme versatility and ability to be tailored to meet very specific technical needs. Lighter weight than competing materials, reducing fuel consumption during transportation. Extreme durability. Resistance to chemicals, water and impact. Good safety and hygiene properties for food packaging. Excellent thermal and electrical insulation properties. Relatively inexpensive to produce.
Use of pastics
Plastics : advantages Recyclable – Plastics can be melted and used to make other products. Can be incinerated – Plastics can be melted down and may be able to generate electricity. Durable – Plastics can take the wear and tear of everyday life without falling apart. Resistant to the environment – Plastics are able to endure a variety of weather conditions without disintegrating.
Plastics : disadvantages Flammable – This is definitely an advantage in that they can be melted down, however smoldering plastics can release toxic fumes into the environment. Cost of Recycling – While recycling is a plus, recycling is a very costly endeavor. Volume – In the United States 20% of our landfill is made up of plastics. As more products are being made of plastics, where will this lead us in the future? Durability – This is an advantage as well as a disadvantage. Plastics are extremely durable, which means that they last a long time. Those plastics in the landfill will be there for years.
Definition: energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished).energynatural resources sunlightwindraintidesgeothermal heat renewable In 2006, about 18% of world energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, such as wood-burning.biomasswood-burning Hydroelectricity was the next largest renewable source, providing 3%, followed by solar hot water/heating, which contributed 1.3%. Hydroelectricitysolar hot water Modern technologies, such as geothermal energy, wind power, solar power, and ocean energy together provided some 0.8% of final energy consumption.geothermal energywind powersolar powerocean energy
Renewable energy and climate change Climate change concerns coupled with high oil prices, peak oil and increasing government support are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. Climate changehigh oil pricespeak oil commercialization European Union leaders reached an agreement in principle in March 2007 that 20 percent of their nations' energy should be produced from renewable fuels by This will to cut emissions of carbon dioxide, blamed in part for global warming. Investment capital flowing into renewable energy climbed from $80 billion in 2005 to a record $100 billion in global warming
Solar energy solar energy" refers to energy that is collected from sunlight. Solar energy can be applied in many ways, including to: Generate electricity by heating trapped air which rotates turbines in a Solar updraft tower. Solar updraft tower Generate electricity in geosynchronous orbit using solar power satellites.solar power satellites Generate electricity using photovoltaic solar cells.solar cells Generate electricity using concentrated solar power.concentrated solar power Generate hydrogen using photoelectrochemical cells.hydrogenphotoelectrochemical cells Heat and cool air through use of solar chimneys.solar chimneys Heat buildings, directly, through passive solar building design.passive solar building design Heat foodstuffs, through solar ovens.solar ovens Heat water or air for domestic hot water and space heating needs using solar-thermal panels. solar-thermal panels Solar air conditioning
Solar cell made from silicon
Solar cell: how it works Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials, such as silicon. Photonssunlightsilicon Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms, allowing them to flow through the material to produce electricity. Due to the special composition of solar cells, the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction. The complementary positive charges that are also created (like bubbles) are called holes and flow in the direction opposite of the electrons in a silicon solar panel. Electrons electricityholes An array of solar panels converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity.direct current
Low Cost Solar Cell Dye-sensitized solar cell is considered the low cost solar cell. Dye-sensitized solar cell This cell is because it is made of low-cost materials and does not need elaborate apparatus to manufacture, so it can be made in a DIY way allowing more players to produce it than any other type of solar cell. In bulk it should be significantly less expensive than older solid-state cell designs.DIYsolid-state It can be engineered into flexible sheets. Although its conversion efficiency is less than the best thin film cells, its price/performance ratio should be high enough to allow them to compete with fossil fuel electrical generation. conversion efficiencythin film cells price/performance ratiofossil fuel electrical generation
Wind power Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms.wind turbines
Biofuel Plants use photosynthesis to grow and produce biomass. Also known as biomatter, biomass can be used directly as fuel or to produce liquid biofuel.photosynthesisbiomassbiofuel Agriculturally produced biomass fuels, such as biodiesel, ethanol and bagasse (often a by-product of sugar cane cultivation) can be burned in internal combustion engines or boilers.biodiesel ethanolbagassesugar caneinternal combustion engines boilers Typically biofuel is burned to release its stored chemical energy. Research into more efficient methods of converting biofuels and other fuels into electricity utilizing fuel cells is an area of very active work.
World wind energy
Solar tower The 11 megawatt PS10 solar power tower in Spain produces electricity from the sun using 624 large movable mirrors called heliostats.PS10 solar power tower
First Solar 40 MW PV Array installed by JUWI Group in Waldpolenz, Germany
Photovoltaics Waldpolenz Solar Park, which will be the world’s largest thin- film photovoltaic (PV) power system, is being built by Juwi at a former military air base to the east of Leipzig in Germany. The power plant will be a 40-megawatt solar power system using state-of-the-art thin film technology, and should be finished by the end of 2009.thin- film photovoltaicJuwiLeipzigGermanysolar powerthin film 550,000 First Solar thin-film modules will be used, which will supply 40,000 MWh of electricity per year.First Solar The installation will be in eastern Germany, to be built on half of the location’s 220 hectares in the townships of Brandis and Bennewitz. The investment cost for the Waldpolenz solar park amounts to some Euro 130 million.Brandis Bennewitz
Photovoltaics 1 hectare = m = 440 plots of land. 1 MW = KW How much electricity do we need in Cyprus???