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Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry 13-1. Carbon Bonds 13-2. Alkanes 13-3. Petroleum Products 13-4. Structural Formulas 13-5. Isomers 13-6. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry 13-1. Carbon Bonds 13-2. Alkanes 13-3. Petroleum Products 13-4. Structural Formulas 13-5. Isomers 13-6. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Carbon Bonds Alkanes Petroleum Products Structural Formulas Isomers Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Benzene Hydrocarbon Groups Functional Groups Polymers Carbohydrates Photosynthesis Lipids Proteins Soil Nitrogen Nucleic Acids Origin of Life

2 Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds; inorganic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds of all elements other than carbon. The general properties of carbon compounds are: 1. Most carbon compounds are non-electrolytes. 2. The reaction rates of carbon compounds are usually slow. 3. Many carbon compounds oxidize slowly in air but rapidly if heated. 4. Most carbon compounds are unstable at high temperatures.

3 13-3. Petroleum Products Fractional distillation Catalytic cracking Modern cracking uses zeolites as the catalyst.

4 13-3. Petroleum Products

5 13-5. Isomers Optical IsomersStructural Isomers Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated compounds have double or triple carbon-carbon bonds and are more reactive than saturated compounds, which have only single carbon-carbon bonds (alkanes and similar compounds). at/chm19104/isomers/intro.htm m19104/isomers/stereoisomers/index.htm

6 13.7 Benzene Aromatic compounds Aliphatic compounds are organic compounds that do not contain benzene rings.

7 13.8 Hydrocarbon Groups Alkanes or Hydrocarbons Methane1 carbon Ethane2 carbons Propane3 carbons Butane4 carbons Pentane5 carbons Hexane6 carbons Heptane7 carbons Octane8 carbons

8 Table 13.1

9 13-9. Functional Groups Alkenes Ethene2 carbons Propene3 carbons Butene4 carbons Pentene5 carbons Hexene6 carbons Heptene7 carbons Octene8 carbons Alkynes Acetylene 2 carbons Propyne3 carbons Butyne4 carbons Pentyne5 carbons Hexyne6 carbons Heptyne7 carbons Octyne9 carbons

10 Fig. 13.9, etc. Acetylene gas welding and cutting.

11 Alcohols Ethanol2 carbons Propanol3 carbons Butanol4 carbons Pentanol5 carbons Hexanole6 carbons Heptanol7 carbons Octanol8 carbons Functional Groups

12 Ethers oxygen in the middle Aldehydes Double bond “O” with “H” on end Functional Groups

13 Ketones Double bond “O” in middle Functional Groups Carboxylic Acids Double bond “O” with “OH”

14 Amines NH 2 on end Functional Groups Esters Double bond “O” with “O” both in middle

15 Table 13.2

16 13-10 Polymers A polymer is a long chain of simple molecules (monomers) linked together. Polymers that contain the vinyl group are classed as vinyls. Some examples of polymers include Styrofoam, Teflon, Orlon, and Plexiglas (or Lucite). Plexiglas is thermoplastic, meaning it softens and can be shaped when heated but becomes rigid again on cooling..

17 Polymerization-the making of plastics Vinyl Petroleum Products

18 Table 13.3

19 13-10 Polymers. A copolymer is a polymer that consists of two different monomers. Dynel and Saran Wrap are examples. Certain monomers that contain two double bonds in each molecule form flexible, elastic polymers called elastomers; rubber and neoprene are examples. Polyamides and polyesters are polymers produced by chemical reactions rather than by the polymerization of monomers.

20 13-10 Polymers. Teflon is polymer with a strong bond between carbon and fluorine atoms. It is used as a no- stick surface in cookware.

21 Carbohydrates D -Allose D -Altrose D -Glucose D -Mannose D -Gulose D -Idose D -Galactose D -Talose D -Glucose (an aldose) α- D -Glucoseβ- D -Glucose β- D -Glucose (chair form)

22 SucroseLactoseMaltose Polysaccharides Amylopectin

23 Cellulose in wood is extracted and converted to paper at this plant in Maine. Microorganisms in the stomachs of cows help them digest cellulose in plants Polysaccharides

24 13.12 Photosynthesis

25

26 Lipids Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Soap Molecule with Polar head and non-polar tail

27 Lipids

28 Proteins The polypeptide chain forms a backbone structure in proteins: On first inspection, this structure appears to be connected entirely by single C-C or C-N bonds. It should therefore be as flexible as a simple hydrocarbon chain. Note that flexing in a covalent structure does not occur by bending bonds, and the normal tetrahedral or trigonal planar bond angles are maintained. Instead, different shapes are obtained by torsional rotation about the axis of the bonds:

29 13-15 Soil Nitrogen

30 Nucleic Acids. Chromosomes consist of DNA molecules. Changes in the sequence of the bases in a DNA molecule can result in a mutation.

31 Origin of Life

32 2001 Space Odyssey HAL 9000 Where did Clarke and Kuberick get the name HAL? IBM IBM thought Hardware would be King! Net worth in 2013 $112.5 billion. Who really became King? Bill Gates software MS DOS! Net worth $72.6 billion in 2013 Microsoft Net worth $290 billion in 2013.

33 Origin of Life

34 Nucleic Acids. Chromosomes consist of DNA molecules. Changes in the sequence of the bases in a DNA molecule can result in a mutation.

35 Intelligent Design DNA Moon same size as the sun to us Atmosphere Magnetic field Just right size for the right gravity Just the right distance from the sun Titius -Bode Law-planetary distances from sun have a pattern Dark energy and matter Patterns in electron energy levels The brain-greatest brain authority says we know nothing The eye-seeing only colors Only 4 basic forces?? What about Intelligence? What are the 4 forces and where do they come from? There is no evidence that one species has changed into another Tunneling affect of electrons Not enough time for man to evolve by chance (14 billion years) Paranormal evidence


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