Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chemical Hazards The overall objective for this module is that participants will extract and interpret chemical hazard information from a Material Safety.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chemical Hazards The overall objective for this module is that participants will extract and interpret chemical hazard information from a Material Safety."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Hazards The overall objective for this module is that participants will extract and interpret chemical hazard information from a Material Safety Data Sheet

2 Overview b Chemical terms and definitions that will help you when handling chemicals b General properties of common chemicals and how to handle them appropriately b How to use the Material Safety Data Sheet to find information about a chemical

3 Expectations b Identify three types of organic hydrocarbons b Identify the three major hazards associated with organic compounds b List the three main types of inorganic chemicals b Identify the major hazard associated with inorganic chemicals b Identify the two chemical types indicated on the pH scale b Identify a corrosive material based on the OSHA definition b Use the Material Safety Data Sheet to find information about a chemical

4 What Are Chemicals?

5 Periodic Table of the Elements

6 Chemical Symbols b CalciumCa b Carbon C b OxygenO Combine to form Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 A Chemical Compound!

7 Two Major Chemical Groups b Organic b Inorganic

8 Organic Chemicals b Based on the chemistry of carbon b Hydrocarbons are the root of most organic chemicals

9 Organic Chemicals b Aromatic Hydrocarbons Benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthaleneBenzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene b Halogenated Hydrocarbons Freon, CFC’S, and PCB’SFreon, CFC’S, and PCB’S b Phosphorylated Hydrocarbons OrganophosphatesOrganophosphates b Oxygenated Hydrocarbons Aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acidsAldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids

10 Hazards of Organic Chemicals b Most are flammable Characteristics such as flashpoints lower and upper flammability and autoignition temperatures should be knownCharacteristics such as flashpoints lower and upper flammability and autoignition temperatures should be known b Most are anesthetics They should always be used in well-ventilated spacesThey should always be used in well-ventilated spaces b Some are carcinogens Toxicity limits should be known and appropriate personal protective equipment wornToxicity limits should be known and appropriate personal protective equipment worn

11 Inorganic Chemicals b Acids b Bases b Salts cleaner

12 pH Scale

13 Identifying Acids b Acids have a pH less than 7 b High concentration of H + ions b Turn litmus paper red b Taste tart b React with metals to form hydrogen gas

14 Identifying Bases b Bases have a pH greater than 7 b Low concentration of H + ions b Turn litmus paper blue b Taste bitter b Have a slippery, soapy feel

15 Identifying Salts b Salts are one or more metal ions combined with one or more nonmetal ions b Formed when an acid and base react with one another b May be toxic and contain heavy metals

16 Hazard of Inorganic Chemicals b Corrosive The second most commonly used and transported group of hazardous materials.The second most commonly used and transported group of hazardous materials. “Any liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel”.“Any liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel”.

17 Hazard of Inorganic Chemicals b Corrosive OSHA Definition: “A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the site of“A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the site ofcontact.”

18 Properties of Chemicals b Physical properties - Can be measured b Chemical properties - How a chemical will react

19 Physical Properties b Volatility b Boiling point b Vapor pressure Measure of pressure that a gas/vapor will exert on the inside of a closed containerMeasure of pressure that a gas/vapor will exert on the inside of a closed container Measured in mm of mercury or inches of mercuryMeasured in mm of mercury or inches of mercury As temperatures rise the vapor pressure increasesAs temperatures rise the vapor pressure increases

20 Physical Properties b Evaporation rate b Melting / Freezing point b Specific gravity Water = 1Water = 1 Less than one is less dense and will float in waterLess than one is less dense and will float in water More than one is more dense and will sink in waterMore than one is more dense and will sink in water

21 Physical Properties b Vapor Density When the gases and vapors are compared to normal room air (air = 1)When the gases and vapors are compared to normal room air (air = 1) Any gas or vapor that has a number less than one is less dense and will rise in airAny gas or vapor that has a number less than one is less dense and will rise in air Any gas or vapor that has a number larger than one is more dense and will sink in airAny gas or vapor that has a number larger than one is more dense and will sink in air b Solubility b Chemical Compatibility

22 Physical Properties b pH It is a scaleIt is a scale Low and high numbers are corrosiveLow and high numbers are corrosive b Flashpoint Minimum temperature at which a substance gives off vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with airMinimum temperature at which a substance gives off vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with air

23 Physical Properties b Flammable - Flashpoint below F  Combustible - F lashpoint above F and below F b Ignitable - Flashpoint less than F

24 Physical Properties b Lower Flammable Limit (LFL or LEL) and Upper Flammable Limit (UFL or UEL) Are the range of chemical vapor to air ratio that needs to exist before a chemical will igniteAre the range of chemical vapor to air ratio that needs to exist before a chemical will ignite

25 Physical Properties b Lower Flammable Limit Lowest concentration, by volume in air, which will explode, ignite, or burn when there is an ignition sourceLowest concentration, by volume in air, which will explode, ignite, or burn when there is an ignition source b Upper Flammable Limit Maximum concentration, by volume in air, which will explode, ignite, or burn when there is an ignition sourceMaximum concentration, by volume in air, which will explode, ignite, or burn when there is an ignition source

26 Fires b Three elements necessary for a fire to occur: Oxidizer (promote burning)Oxidizer (promote burning) Fuel (something to burn)Fuel (something to burn) Ignition sourceIgnition source

27 Chemical Properties b Oxidizers b Pyrophoric b Water reactive

28 Oxidizers b Chemicals that contain oxygen and will give it up readily b May cause or enhance the combustion of other materials

29 Pyrophoric b Solids and liquids spontaneously ignite in air at certain temperatures

30 Water Reactive b Chemicals become spontaneously flammable or give off flammable or toxic gas when in contact with water

31 Chemical References b Material Safety Data Sheets b The Chemical Dictionary b Product Label b Farm Chemical Handbook b Poison Control Center

32 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) b OSHA Requirements IdentityIdentity Physical and Chemical CharacteristicsPhysical and Chemical Characteristics Physical HazardsPhysical Hazards Health HazardsHealth Hazards Routes of EntryRoutes of Entry PEL and TLVPEL and TLV

33 b OSHA Requirements CarcinogenicityCarcinogenicity Precautions for Safe Handling and UsePrecautions for Safe Handling and Use Control MeasuresControl Measures Emergency and First Aid ProceduresEmergency and First Aid Procedures Date of PreparationDate of Preparation Name, Address, Phone Number of PrepareName, Address, Phone Number of Prepare Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

34 Understanding types of chemicals, properties, potential hazards, and use of reference materials will enable you to handle chemicals safely and appropriately


Download ppt "Chemical Hazards The overall objective for this module is that participants will extract and interpret chemical hazard information from a Material Safety."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google