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1 © Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 37

2 © Boardworks Ltd 20062 of 37

3 © Boardworks Ltd 20063 of 37 What is crude oil? Crude oil is a fossil fuel and one of the most important substances in the world. It is a mixture of hundreds of different compounds. Crude oil is used to make fuels for transport, heating and generating electricity. It is also used to make plastics and hundreds of different types of chemicals. Every day, the world uses over 70 million barrels of oil. If you filled bath tubs with this amount of oil and put them end-to- end, they would stretch round the Earth 7.5 times!

4 © Boardworks Ltd 20064 of 37 How did oil save the whales? How did oil help to reduce whale hunting in the 19 th century?

5 © Boardworks Ltd 20065 of 37 Crude oil: a brief history The modern oil industry began in the mid-19 th century when kerosene was distilled from crude oil and used as a cheap and clean-burning fuel for lamps. It wasn’t until the development of the internal combustion engine and gasoline-powered cars in the late 19 th century that gasoline became highly valuable. Gasoline was a by-product in kerosene production, and was initially used as a solvent. This led to a great increase in the demand for crude oil, which has continued to this day.

6 © Boardworks Ltd 20066 of 37 How was crude oil made? Crude oil is thought to have been made from the remains of marine plants and animals that died millions of years ago. These remains sank to the bottom of the sea, where they were buried in layers of sand and mud, preventing them from rotting. These layers gradually became sedimentary rock. Over millions of years the layers of rock built up, increasing the heat and pressure. This caused the remains to be broken down into the molecules that form crude oil and natural gas.

7 © Boardworks Ltd 20067 of 37 Hydrocarbons in crude oil Many compounds in crude oil only contain the elements carbon and hydrogen. They are called hydrocarbons. Most hydrocarbons in crude oil are compounds called alkanes. Alkanes contain a single chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms bonded along the side.

8 © Boardworks Ltd 20068 of 37 What are alkanes? Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbon compounds with the general formula C n H 2n+2. The simplest alkane is methane. It has the formula CH 4. The second simplest alkane is ethane. It has the formula C 2 H 6. The third simplest alkane is propane. It has the formula C 3 H 8.

9 © Boardworks Ltd 20069 of 37 Where in the world is crude oil?

10 © Boardworks Ltd 200610 of 37 Finding crude oil at sea Crude oil is often found trapped in rocks of the sea bed. Oil rigs or drilling platforms are used to drill through the sea bed to obtain the oil. Once the oil has been removed from the sea bed, it is pumped in long pipelines to an oil tanker terminal or an oil refinery on land.

11 © Boardworks Ltd 200611 of 37 When will crude oil run out? It is difficult to say when crude oil will run out because no-one knows exactly how much oil there is left in the world. Some scientists believe there is a lot more oil still to find, but others think that most oil has already been discovered. There are over 1 trillion (1 million million) barrels of crude oil in proven oil reserves At current rates, this will last about 44 years, but the amount of oil used in the world increases each year.

12 © Boardworks Ltd 200612 of 37 Problems with crude oil Crude oil is extremely useful but it has several drawbacks: Burning the products of crude oil as fuel produces gases and particles that contribute to global warming and air pollution. Removing oil from the ground, as well as oil spillages and slicks, can be very damaging to wildlife and the environment. The high value of oil means it is sometimes the cause of military conflict, especially because a large amount of oil comes from countries that are politically unstable.

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14 © Boardworks Ltd 200614 of 37 Crude oil itself has no uses – it must first be processed or refined. This is done in an oil refinery. The first step is to separate compounds in the oil into groups called fractions. Each fraction contains a mix of compounds with a similar number of carbon atoms. How can crude oil be made useful?

15 © Boardworks Ltd 200615 of 37 Molecule size and boiling point The more carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule, the larger the molecule. How does this affect its boiling point? Generally, the larger a hydrocarbon, the higher its boiling point. This is because the intermolecular forces between large molecules are stronger than the intermolecular forces between small molecules. More energy is needed to break the forces between large molecules, and so the boiling point is higher. Molecules in crude oil can contain anything from just 1 carbon atom to well over 50.

16 © Boardworks Ltd 200616 of 37 Boiling point of alkanes

17 © Boardworks Ltd 200617 of 37 What is fractional distillation? Fractional distillation is a process used to separate a mixture of liquids that have different boiling points. Fractional distillation is used to separate crude oil into fractions with different boiling points. It can be done industrially and in the laboratory. When the mixture is heated, liquids with a low boiling point evaporate and turn to vapour. Liquids with a higher boiling point remain as liquid. The vapour can then be separated from the liquid.

18 © Boardworks Ltd 200618 of 37 Fractional distillation of crude oil Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. 1.Oil is heated to about 450 °C and pumped into the bottom of a tall tower called a fractionating column, where it vaporizes. 2.The column is very hot at the bottom but much cooler at the top. As the vaporized oil rises, it cools and condenses. 3.Heavy fractions (containing large molecules) have a high boiling point and condense near the bottom of the column. 4.Lighter fractions (containing small molecules) have a lower boiling point and condense further up the column.

19 © Boardworks Ltd 200619 of 37 How does fractional distillation work?

20 © Boardworks Ltd 200620 of 37 Fractional distillation in the lab Fractional distillation of crude oil can be done in the laboratory by heating crude oil and collecting the vapour produced at different temperatures. mineral wool soaked in crude oil cooling water fractions collected previously (at lower temperatures)

21 © Boardworks Ltd 200621 of 37 Order of fractions

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23 © Boardworks Ltd 200623 of 37 Supply and demand The amount of each type of fraction obtained by fractional distillation does not usually match the amount of each fraction that is needed. Crude oil often contains more heavier fractions than lighter fractions. Lighter fractions are more useful and therefore more desirable. The large hydrocarbon molecules in the heavier fractions can be broken down into smaller, more useful, molecules to meet demand for raw materials for fuels and plastics.

24 © Boardworks Ltd 200624 of 37 Catalytic cracking Large hydrocarbon molecules can be broken down into smaller molecules using a catalyst. This is called catalytic cracking, and is an example of a thermal decomposition reaction. The hydrocarbon molecules are heated until they turn into vapour, and then mixed with a catalyst. The molecules break apart, forming smaller alkanes and alkenes. Alkenes are reactive molecules that are used to make plastics and other chemicals.

25 © Boardworks Ltd 200625 of 37 What are alkenes? Alkenes are a family of hydrocarbon compounds with the general formula C n H 2n. Alkenes are very similar to alkanes, but they have one important difference: they contain at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms. The simplest alkene is ethene. It has the formula C 2 H 4. The second simplest alkene is propene. It has the formula C 3 H 6.

26 © Boardworks Ltd 200626 of 37 Cracking decane Decane from the naphtha fraction can be cracked to form pentane (for use in petrol), propene and ethene. decane (C 10 H 22 )  pentane (C 5 H 12 ) propene (C 3 H 6 ) ethene (C 2 H 4 ) + +

27 © Boardworks Ltd 200627 of 37 Saturated vs. unsaturated Alkanes are examples of saturated compounds. Alkenes are examples of unsaturated compounds. A saturated compound only contains single covalent bonds between carbon atoms. An unsaturated compound contains at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms. A test to distinguish between saturated and unsaturated compounds is to add red bromine water. In the presence of unsaturated compounds, the red colour disappears.

28 © Boardworks Ltd 200628 of 37 How does catalytic cracking work?

29 © Boardworks Ltd 200629 of 37 Catalytic cracking in the lab Catalytic cracking can be done in the laboratory by heating mineral wool soaked in oil with a catalyst, producing a gas. What might this gas be? mineral wool soaked in oil gaseous product aluminium oxide catalyst

30 © Boardworks Ltd 200630 of 37 Removing impurities An important step in refining is removing impurities from fractions. These can damage equipment that uses the fraction, and cause pollution. One of the most important impurities to remove is sulfur. When burnt, this forms the gas sulfur dioxide, which causes acid rain. Other impurities that need to be removed include nitrogen, oxygen, water and dissolved metals.

31 © Boardworks Ltd 200631 of 37 True or false?

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33 © Boardworks Ltd 200633 of 37 alkanes – A family of hydrocarbon molecules with the general formula C n H 2n+2. alkenes – A family of hydrocarbon molecules with the general formula C n H 2n. catalytic cracking – A reaction where a large molecule is broken down into smaller molecules in the presence of a catalyst. crude oil – A naturally-occurring mixture of different-sized hydrocarbon molecules. fraction – A mixture of hydrocarbon molecules of a similar size. Glossary (1/2)

34 © Boardworks Ltd 200634 of 37 fractional distillation – The process used to separate crude oil into different fractions. hydrocarbon – A molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon. saturated – A compound that only contains single covalent bonds between carbon atoms. unsaturated – A compound that has at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms. Glossary (2/2)

35 © Boardworks Ltd 200635 of 37 Anagrams

36 © Boardworks Ltd 200636 of 37 The stages of fractional distillation

37 © Boardworks Ltd 200637 of 37 Multiple-choice quiz

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