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Organic Compounds Chapter 24. Organic Compounds Section 1- Simple Organic Compounds slides 3-20 Section 1- Simple Organic Compounds slides 3-20slides.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Compounds Chapter 24. Organic Compounds Section 1- Simple Organic Compounds slides 3-20 Section 1- Simple Organic Compounds slides 3-20slides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Compounds Chapter 24

2 Organic Compounds Section 1- Simple Organic Compounds slides 3-20 Section 1- Simple Organic Compounds slides 3-20slides 3-20slides 3-20 Section 2- Other Organic Compounds slides Section 2- Other Organic Compounds slides 21-32slides 21-32slides Section 3- Petroleum- A Source of Carbon Compounds slides Section 3- Petroleum- A Source of Carbon Compounds slides 33-44slides 33-44slides Section 4- Biological Compounds slides Section 4- Biological Compounds slides 45-62slides 45-62slides 45-62

3 Section 1 Simple Organic Compounds What You’ll Learn: What You’ll Learn: About organic and inorganic carbon compounds About organic and inorganic carbon compounds Difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons Difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons Identify isomers Identify isomers

4 1 Simple Organic Compounds Most compounds that contain the element carbon are organic compounds made by living organisms or synthesized in laboratories. Most compounds that contain the element carbon are organic compounds made by living organisms or synthesized in laboratories. More than 90 % of carbon compounds are organic. More than 90 % of carbon compounds are organic. Others like carbon dioxide and carbonates are inorganic compounds. Others like carbon dioxide and carbonates are inorganic compounds.

5 Why does carbon form so many organic compounds? With 4 electrons in its outer energy level, carbon can form one covalent bond with each of these electrons. With 4 electrons in its outer energy level, carbon can form one covalent bond with each of these electrons. There are many C compounds because C can form so many bonds. There are many C compounds because C can form so many bonds. Some are small like the ones used as fuel while some are complex like those in medicine and plastics. Some are small like the ones used as fuel while some are complex like those in medicine and plastics.

6 How can C atoms arrange themselves? C atoms can bond together as chains, branched chains, & rings. C atoms can bond together as chains, branched chains, & rings.

7 How can C atoms arrange themselves? The first structure shows carbon bonded in a straight chain as heptane, an organic compound in gasoline. The first structure shows carbon bonded in a straight chain as heptane, an organic compound in gasoline. The second structure, a branched chain, shows isoprene, an organic compound in natural rubber. The second structure, a branched chain, shows isoprene, an organic compound in natural rubber. The third structure, a cyclic ring or chain, is vanillin from vanilla flavoring. The third structure, a cyclic ring or chain, is vanillin from vanilla flavoring. Also forms single, double or triple covalent bonds. Also forms single, double or triple covalent bonds.

8 Hydrocarbons A compound that is made of only carbon and hydrogen is called a hydrocarbon. A compound that is made of only carbon and hydrogen is called a hydrocarbon. Natural gas contains the hydrocarbon methane or CH 4. Natural gas contains the hydrocarbon methane or CH 4.

9 Single Bonds Hydrocarbons with only single-bonded C atoms are called saturated hydrocarbons. It is saturated because each C is bonded to as many H as possible. Hydrocarbons with only single-bonded C atoms are called saturated hydrocarbons. It is saturated because each C is bonded to as many H as possible.

10 Boiling Points of Hydrocarbons methane ethane propane butanepentane

11 Boiling Points of Hydrocarbons Did you see a pattern? Did you see a pattern? The boiling points of saturated hydrocarbons increase as the number of carbon atoms in the chain increases. The boiling points of saturated hydrocarbons increase as the number of carbon atoms in the chain increases.

12 Can different hydrocarbons have the same formula? Butane is C 4 H 10 and so is isobutane. Butane is a straight chain molecule but isobutane has a branched chain. Butane is C 4 H 10 and so is isobutane. Butane is a straight chain molecule but isobutane has a branched chain. Image File history Links

13 What are isomers? Isomers are compounds that have the same chemical formula, but have different molecular structures & shapes. Isomers are compounds that have the same chemical formula, but have different molecular structures & shapes. Thousands of hydrocarbons are isomers. Thousands of hydrocarbons are isomers. Butane & isobutane are two of them. Butane & isobutane are two of them.

14 Properties of Butane Isomers PropertyButaneIsobutane Description Colorless gas Density 0.60 kg/L kg/L Melting Point -135°C -145°C Boiling Point -0.5°C -10.2°C

15 Are there other kinds of isomers? Some isomers differ only slightly in the way their atoms are arranged. Some form what are called right- handed & left-handed molecules. These have nearly identical physical and chemical properties. Some isomers differ only slightly in the way their atoms are arranged. Some form what are called right- handed & left-handed molecules. These have nearly identical physical and chemical properties.

16 Multiple Bonds Ethene or ethlylene gas is what makes fruit ripen. Ethene or ethlylene gas is what makes fruit ripen. You can see ethene has one double bond. You can see ethene has one double bond. The two C atoms share two pairs of electrons. The two C atoms share two pairs of electrons.

17 Multiple Bonds The ethyne molecule has a triple bond with two carbon atoms sharing three pairs of electrons. Also called acetylene, it’s used in welding torches. Ethene and ethyne are unsaturated hydrocarbons. The ethyne molecule has a triple bond with two carbon atoms sharing three pairs of electrons. Also called acetylene, it’s used in welding torches. Ethene and ethyne are unsaturated hydrocarbons.

18 Multiple Bonds An unsaturated hydrocarbon is one that has at least one double bond or triple bond. The compounds are unsaturated because each carbon atom is not bonded to as many hydrogens as possible. An unsaturated hydrocarbon is one that has at least one double bond or triple bond. The compounds are unsaturated because each carbon atom is not bonded to as many hydrogens as possible. The last three letters tell what type of bond is in the molecule. Compounds ending in –ane have only single bonds. Those with –ene have at least one double bond and –yne signifies at least one triple bond. The last three letters tell what type of bond is in the molecule. Compounds ending in –ane have only single bonds. Those with –ene have at least one double bond and –yne signifies at least one triple bond.

19 Flow Chart Organic compounds Contain only C & H are called Bond as Single bonds _____ bonds ______ bonds Straight chains ________ chains _________ chains

20 Flow Chart Organic compounds Contain only C & H are called hydrocarbons Bond as Single bonds Double bonds Triple bonds Straight chains Branched chains Cyclic chains

21 Section 2 Other Organic Compounds What You’ll Learn: What You’ll Learn: What aromatic compounds are What aromatic compounds are What alcohols and acids are What alcohols and acids are Some organic compounds you use everyday Some organic compounds you use everyday

22 2 Other Organic Compounds Organic compounds produce tastes and smells such as wintergreen, cloves, cinnamon, and vanilla. Organic compounds produce tastes and smells such as wintergreen, cloves, cinnamon, and vanilla. This is wintergreen or methyl salicylate used in chewing gum. This is wintergreen or methyl salicylate used in chewing gum.

23 Aromatic Compounds Other organic compounds have unpleasant tastes or smells. Other organic compounds have unpleasant tastes or smells. This figure shows the structural formula for acetyl salicylic acid or aspirin which has a sour taste. This figure shows the structural formula for acetyl salicylic acid or aspirin which has a sour taste. An aromatic compound contains a benzene structure having a ring made of six C atoms. An aromatic compound contains a benzene structure having a ring made of six C atoms.

24 Why is benzene stable? The chemical structure for benzene is C 6 H 6. The chemical structure for benzene is C 6 H 6. The benzene ring is made of six C atoms bonded together by three double bonds & three single bonds alternating around the ring. The benzene ring is made of six C atoms bonded together by three double bonds & three single bonds alternating around the ring.

25 Why is benzene stable? All 6 C equally share the electrons making the molecule very stable. All 6 C equally share the electrons making the molecule very stable. The symbol for benzene is a circle inside a hexagon. The symbol for benzene is a circle inside a hexagon. Many organic structures contain a benzene ring. Many organic structures contain a benzene ring.

26 Are there other ring structures? Organic compounds can contain more than one ring structure. Organic compounds can contain more than one ring structure. Some moth crystals are made of naphthalene with two rings fused together. Some moth crystals are made of naphthalene with two rings fused together. Many contain 3 or more rings fused together. Many contain 3 or more rings fused together.

27 Substituted Hydrocarbons Chemists change hydrocarbons into other compounds with different physical & chemical properties. Chemists change hydrocarbons into other compounds with different physical & chemical properties. May add a double or triple bond May add a double or triple bond May substitute different atoms or groups of atoms May substitute different atoms or groups of atoms

28 Substituted Hydrocarbons A substituted hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon that has one or more of its hydrogen atoms replaced by atoms or groups of atoms of other elements. A substituted hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon that has one or more of its hydrogen atoms replaced by atoms or groups of atoms of other elements. Chemists decide what kinds of properties they want in a new compound and then they choose atoms or groups of atoms or types of bonds that will give those properties. Chemists decide what kinds of properties they want in a new compound and then they choose atoms or groups of atoms or types of bonds that will give those properties.

29 What are some substituted hydrocarbons? An alcohol forms when a hydroxyl group, –OH, replaces one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon. An alcohol forms when a hydroxyl group, –OH, replaces one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon. This is ethanol. When the sugars in grains or fruits ferments, it produces ethanol This is ethanol. When the sugars in grains or fruits ferments, it produces ethanol

30 What are some substituted hydrocarbons? Organic acids form when a carboxyl group, -COOH, attaches to a C atom of a hydrocarbon. Organic acids form when a carboxyl group, -COOH, attaches to a C atom of a hydrocarbon. Acetic acid is an organic acid found in vinegar. Other organic acids include citric acid in citrus fruit & lactic acid in sour milk. Acetic acid is an organic acid found in vinegar. Other organic acids include citric acid in citrus fruit & lactic acid in sour milk.

31 What other elements can be added to hydrocarbons? Chlorine can be used as well as H & O. Chlorine can be used as well as H & O. When 4 Cl atoms replace 4 H on ethene, they form tetra- chloroethene, a solvent used in dry cleaning. When 4 Cl atoms replace 4 H on ethene, they form tetra- chloroethene, a solvent used in dry cleaning.

32 What other elements can be added to hydrocarbons? When 4 Fl atoms replace 4 H atoms, they form a compound that can be made into a black, shiny material used for nonstick cookware. When 4 Fl atoms replace 4 H atoms, they form a compound that can be made into a black, shiny material used for nonstick cookware. N, Br and S are also used in substituted hydrocarbons. N, Br and S are also used in substituted hydrocarbons. Compounds called thiols are formed when S replaces the O in the –OH group of an alcohol. Compounds called thiols are formed when S replaces the O in the –OH group of an alcohol. Thiols are also called mercaptans which smell very bad such as skunk spray. Thiols are also called mercaptans which smell very bad such as skunk spray.

33 Section 3 Petroleum- A Source of Carbon Compounds What You’ll Learn: What You’ll Learn: How carbon compounds are obtained from petroleum How carbon compounds are obtained from petroleum How carbon compounds form long chains of molecules How carbon compounds form long chains of molecules What polymers are What polymers are

34 What is Petroleum? Plastic comes from petroleum, a dark, flammable liquid often called crude oil. It exists deep within Earth. Coal, natural gas, & petroleum are all called fossil fuels because they come from fossilized material. Plastic comes from petroleum, a dark, flammable liquid often called crude oil. It exists deep within Earth. Coal, natural gas, & petroleum are all called fossil fuels because they come from fossilized material. Oil wells pump crude oil to Earth’s surface. Oil wells pump crude oil to Earth’s surface. Engineers separate the mixture by fractional distillation at refineries in metal towers called fractionating towers. Engineers separate the mixture by fractional distillation at refineries in metal towers called fractionating towers.

35 What is a fractionating tower? As tall as 35 m, metal plates are arranged to let vapors pass through. As tall as 35 m, metal plates are arranged to let vapors pass through. Pipes are attached at different levels to separate crude oil into fractions using distillation. Pipes are attached at different levels to separate crude oil into fractions using distillation. Depending upon their boiling point, vapors condense at particular levels or temps. Depending upon their boiling point, vapors condense at particular levels or temps.

36 What is a fractionating tower? Crude oil is heated to more than 350°C. Most of the hydrocarbons turn into vapor & begin to rise inside the tower. Crude oil is heated to more than 350°C. Most of the hydrocarbons turn into vapor & begin to rise inside the tower. Vapors of the fractions with the highest boiling points only reach the lowest plates before condensing, draining off & being collected. Vapors of the fractions with the highest boiling points only reach the lowest plates before condensing, draining off & being collected.

37 Uses for Petroleum Compounds Some fractions are used for fuels. Butane & propane are some of the lightest fractions taken from the top of the tower. Molecules of propane have 3 C atoms; butane has 4 C atoms. Some fractions are used for fuels. Butane & propane are some of the lightest fractions taken from the top of the tower. Molecules of propane have 3 C atoms; butane has 4 C atoms. Molecules with 5-10 C atoms/molecule condense on the upper plate & are used for gasoline & solvents. Molecules with 5-10 C atoms/molecule condense on the upper plate & are used for gasoline & solvents. Those that condense on lower plates have C atoms like kerosene & jet fuel. Those that condense on lower plates have C atoms like kerosene & jet fuel. Bottom fractions are lubricating oil with leftovers used to make asphalt to pave roads. Bottom fractions are lubricating oil with leftovers used to make asphalt to pave roads.

38 Polymers A polymer is a very large molecule made from small molecules linked together like a chain. A polymer is a very large molecule made from small molecules linked together like a chain. A monomer is the small molecule that forms a link in the polymer chain. A monomer is the small molecule that forms a link in the polymer chain. A polymer chain can contain as many as 10,000 monomers. A polymer chain can contain as many as 10,000 monomers.

39 What are some common polymers? Plastic is a common polymer made from the monomer ethene or ethylene combined repeatedly to make polyethylene for shopping bags and plastic bottles. Plastic is a common polymer made from the monomer ethene or ethylene combined repeatedly to make polyethylene for shopping bags and plastic bottles. Polypropylene is used to make glues and carpets. Polypropylene is used to make glues and carpets. Copolymers consist of two or more different monomers combined to make one polymer molecule. Copolymers consist of two or more different monomers combined to make one polymer molecule.

40 What are some common polymers? Characteristics include being light & flexible. Characteristics include being light & flexible. So strong used to make plastic pipes, boats, car bodies; So strong used to make plastic pipes, boats, car bodies; Used in place of wood & metal in buildings. Used in place of wood & metal in buildings. Some people call this the age of plastics. Some people call this the age of plastics.

41 What determines the properties of polymer materials? Their properties depend on which monomers are used to make them– are they branched & what shape are they? Their properties depend on which monomers are used to make them– are they branched & what shape are they? Sometimes the same polymer can take two completely different forms like polystyrene Sometimes the same polymer can take two completely different forms like polystyrene Clear CD cases are by blowing CO 2 into melted polystyrene as it is molded Clear CD cases are by blowing CO 2 into melted polystyrene as it is molded Foam cups & packing materials have bubbles remaining in the polymer making it a good insulator. Foam cups & packing materials have bubbles remaining in the polymer making it a good insulator.

42 What determines the properties of polymer materials? Polymers can be spun into thread & made into tough fabrics for suitcases & backpacks or for bulletproof vests. Polymers can be spun into thread & made into tough fabrics for suitcases & backpacks or for bulletproof vests. Polymer fibers can stretch and return to their original shape for exercise clothing. Polymer fibers can stretch and return to their original shape for exercise clothing.

43 What are some other petroleum products? Other products are made by separating individual compounds from the petroleum fractions & then changed into substituted hydrocarbons to make: Other products are made by separating individual compounds from the petroleum fractions & then changed into substituted hydrocarbons to make: Aspirin Aspirin Insecticides Insecticides Printing ink Printing ink Flavorings Flavorings Dyes Dyes

44 Are there some problems with polymers? Disposing of things made with polymers is a problem because they do not decompose. Disposing of things made with polymers is a problem because they do not decompose. Recycling reuses clean plastics to make new products. Recycling reuses clean plastics to make new products. Depolymerization uses heat or chemicals to break long polymer chains into monomer fragments which then can be used to make other polymers. Too expensive to be practical now due to different process for each polymer. Depolymerization uses heat or chemicals to break long polymer chains into monomer fragments which then can be used to make other polymers. Too expensive to be practical now due to different process for each polymer.

45 Section 4 Biological Compounds What You’ll Learn: What You’ll Learn: About proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids About proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids Polymers in food Polymers in food Biological polymers Biological polymers

46 Biological Polymers Many important biological compounds in your body are biological polymers: Many important biological compounds in your body are biological polymers: Huge molecules made of monomers Huge molecules made of monomers Larger than monomers of other polymers Larger than monomers of other polymers Examples include proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, & lipids. Examples include proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, & lipids.

47 Proteins Proteins are large organic polymers formed from organic monomers called amino acids. Proteins are large organic polymers formed from organic monomers called amino acids. Only 20 amino acids can make millions of different proteins for various tissues of your body like muscles, tendons, hair, fingernails, etc. Only 20 amino acids can make millions of different proteins for various tissues of your body like muscles, tendons, hair, fingernails, etc. Cell parts are pictured. Cell parts are pictured.

48 What are amino acids? Amino acids are the monomers that combine to form proteins. Amino acids are the monomers that combine to form proteins. The figure shows the structures of the amino acids. The figure shows the structures of the amino acids. Each amino acid has an amine group, -NH 2 & a carboxyl group, -COOH. Each amino acid has an amine group, -NH 2 & a carboxyl group, -COOH.

49 What are amino acids? The amine group of one amino acid can combine with the carboxyl group of another amino acid. The amine group of one amino acid can combine with the carboxyl group of another amino acid. This compound is a peptide with a peptide bond joining them. This compound is a peptide with a peptide bond joining them. A molecule containing 50 or more amino acids is called a protein. A molecule containing 50 or more amino acids is called a protein.

50 What do proteins look like? Because proteins are such a long chain, it twists around itself & can be identified by the way it twists. Because proteins are such a long chain, it twists around itself & can be identified by the way it twists. Many foods contain proteins which your body breaks into monomers to make new proteins for blood & muscles, etc. Many foods contain proteins which your body breaks into monomers to make new proteins for blood & muscles, etc.

51 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are another group of organic polymers that are essential for life. Nucleic acids are another group of organic polymers that are essential for life. They control cell activities & reproduction. They control cell activities & reproduction. DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid codes & stores genetic information (genetic code) in the nuclei of cells. DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid codes & stores genetic information (genetic code) in the nuclei of cells.

52 What is DNA made of? Monomers called nucleotides make up DNA. Monomers called nucleotides make up DNA. Nucleotides contain an organic base, a sugar, a phosphoric acid unit. Nucleotides contain an organic base, a sugar, a phosphoric acid unit. Two chains of nucleotides twist around each other like a “twisted ladder” or a double helix (spiral). Two chains of nucleotides twist around each other like a “twisted ladder” or a double helix (spiral).

53 What is DNA made of? Human DNA has 4 base pairs which forms millions of combinations. Human DNA has 4 base pairs which forms millions of combinations. The figure shows how bases on one side of the ladder link with the other side to form a base pair. The figure shows how bases on one side of the ladder link with the other side to form a base pair. The genetic code of DNA gives instructions for making other nucleotides & proteins needed by the body. The genetic code of DNA gives instructions for making other nucleotides & proteins needed by the body.

54 What is DNA fingerprinting? Each molecule of DNA in your body has more than 5 million base pairs. Each molecule of DNA in your body has more than 5 million base pairs. Your DNA is unique unless you have an identical twin. Your DNA is unique unless you have an identical twin. DNA can be used to solve crimes by removing the DNA from hair, blood, or saliva left at a crime scene. DNA can be used to solve crimes by removing the DNA from hair, blood, or saliva left at a crime scene. By breaking the polymer into monomers & comparing the pattern to a suspect’s DNA, they can link the suspect to the crime scene. By breaking the polymer into monomers & comparing the pattern to a suspect’s DNA, they can link the suspect to the crime scene.

55 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are organic compounds made of C, H & O with twice as many H atoms as O atoms. Carbohydrates are organic compounds made of C, H & O with twice as many H atoms as O atoms. Carbohydrates include sugars & starches. Carbohydrates include sugars & starches. Foods like bread & pasta contain carbohydrates. Foods like bread & pasta contain carbohydrates.

56 What are sugars? Sucrose is table sugar which the body breaks down into fructose & glucose or more simple sugars. Sucrose is table sugar which the body breaks down into fructose & glucose or more simple sugars. Fruit contains fructose. Fruit contains fructose. Glucose is found in your blood & in fruit & honey. Glucose is found in your blood & in fruit & honey. Eating sugar-rich food gives you a quick boost of energy. Eating sugar-rich food gives you a quick boost of energy. Sucrose C 12 H 22 O 11 Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6

57 What is a starch? Starch is a polymer carbohydrate made of monomers of glucose. Starch is a polymer carbohydrate made of monomers of glucose. Your body breaks it into sugars which release energy into your cells. Your body breaks it into sugars which release energy into your cells. Athletes use starches for long lasting energy stored in the liver & muscle cells as glycogen for a fresh burst of power. Athletes use starches for long lasting energy stored in the liver & muscle cells as glycogen for a fresh burst of power.

58 Lipids Lipids are organic compounds like fats and oils such as butter and corn oil. Lipids are organic compounds like fats and oils such as butter and corn oil. Lipids are made of C, H & O but with fewer O atoms than carbohydrates. Lipids are made of C, H & O but with fewer O atoms than carbohydrates. Another difference is that lipids contain carboxyl groups, -COOH while carbohydrates do not. Another difference is that lipids contain carboxyl groups, -COOH while carbohydrates do not.

59 What are some lipids in your diet? Fats & oils are similar in structure to hydrocarbons. Fats & oils are similar in structure to hydrocarbons. If they only have single bonds between C atoms, they are saturated fats. If they only have single bonds between C atoms, they are saturated fats. Unsaturated fat that has only one double bond is monounsaturated. Unsaturated fat that has only one double bond is monounsaturated. An unsaturated fat that has two or more double bonds is polyunsaturated An unsaturated fat that has two or more double bonds is polyunsaturated

60 What are some lipids in your diet? Fats are lipids that come from animals. Fats are lipids that come from animals. Usually saturated & solid at room temperature. Usually saturated & solid at room temperature. Oils are unsaturated & usually liquid at room temperature. Oils are unsaturated & usually liquid at room temperature. Sometimes H is added to vegetable oil to saturate the C & make it solid. Sometimes H is added to vegetable oil to saturate the C & make it solid.

61 Cholesterol Found in meats, eggs, butter, cheese, & fish, your body also produces cholesterol & uses it to build cell membranes. Found in meats, eggs, butter, cheese, & fish, your body also produces cholesterol & uses it to build cell membranes. Found in the digestive fluid bile. Found in the digestive fluid bile. Can cause damage to the heart & blood vessels. Can cause damage to the heart & blood vessels.

62 Cholesterol Eating too many foods with high amounts of saturated fats & cholesterol may cause heart disease. Eating too many foods with high amounts of saturated fats & cholesterol may cause heart disease. Some unsaturated fats may protect the heart from disease. Some unsaturated fats may protect the heart from disease. A balanced diet contains some fats as well as proteins & carbohydrates. A balanced diet contains some fats as well as proteins & carbohydrates.


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