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University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology “Petroleum Systems”

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1 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology “Petroleum Systems”

2 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology “Petroleum Systems” “Plate Tectonics” “Seqeunce Stratigraphy” “Integrative Petroleumology”

3 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology “Petroleum Systems” “Plate Tectonics” “Seqeunce Stratigraphy” “Integrative Petroleumology”

4 The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine” “Oil is found in the minds of men” or, more fully, “Where oil is first found is, in the final analysis, in the minds of men.” Wallace E. Pratt, Chief Geologist, Humble Oil Company; later Vice-President of Standard Oil PS insp University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Wallace E. Pratt

5 The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine” “Oil is found in the minds of men” or, more fully, “Where oil is first found is, in the final analysis, in the minds of men.” Wallace E. Pratt, Chief Geologist, Humble Oil Company; later Vice-President of Standard Oil PS insp University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Wallace E. Pratt

6 The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine” “Oil is found in the minds of men” or, more fully, “Where oil is first found is, in the final analysis, in the minds of men.” Wallace E. Pratt, Chief Geologist, Humble Oil Company; later Vice-President of Standard Oil PS insp University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Wallace E. Pratt

7 The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine” “Oil is found in the minds of men” or, more fully, “Where oil is first found is, in the final analysis, in the minds of men.” Wallace E. Pratt, Chief Geologist, Humble Oil Company Frequently cited by Michel T. Halbouty, past AAPG president and winner of AGI’s Legendary Geoscientist Award PS insp University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Wallace E. Pratt Michel T. Halbouty

8 The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine” “Oil is found in the minds of men” or, more fully, “Where oil is first found is, in the final analysis, in the minds of men.” PS insp University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology UGA B.S. and M.S. Grads Michelle Anderson and Shawn Hall.

9 The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine” “Oil is found in the minds of men” or, more fully, “Where oil is first found is, in the final analysis, in the minds of men.” Wallace E. Pratt, Chief Geologist, Humble Oil Company Less poetically, Humans find petroleum most efficiently with a good model of how petroleum accumulations form. PS insp University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

10 A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of source, migration, reservoir, trap, and seal. LBR “... a petroleum province can be considered as the final result of an organized set of geologic events (in space and in time) that can be called a petroleum system. In such a system, the sequence of subsidence movements and associated flows is just as decisive as lithologic and geometric factors in the formation of a group of pools.” Perrodon & Masse 1984 The elements of a petroleum system consist of source rock, migration path, reservoir rock, seal, and trap, and those elements "must be placed in time and space such that a petroleum deposit can occur.” Magoon 1987 “All of the factors which affect the processes of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation constitute elements of a total system which may be described as a machine.” Meissner et al PS defns University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Bibliography is on next page. The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine”

11 A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of source, migration, reservoir, trap, and seal. LBR “... a petroleum province can be considered as the final result of an organized set of geologic events (in space and in time) that can be called a petroleum system. In such a system, the sequence of subsidence movements and associated flows is just as decisive as lithologic and geometric factors in the formation of a group of pools.” Perrodon & Masse 1984 The elements of a petroleum system consist of source rock, migration path, reservoir rock, seal, and trap, and those elements "must be placed in time and space such that a petroleum deposit can occur.” Magoon 1987 “All of the factors which affect the processes of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation constitute elements of a total system which may be described as a machine.” Meissner et al PS defns University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Bibliography is on next page. The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine”

12 PS5 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of source, migration pathway(s), reservoir(s), trap(s), and seal(s).

13 A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of source, migration, reservoir, trap, and seal. LBR “... a petroleum province can be considered as the final result of an organized set of geologic events (in space and in time) that can be called a petroleum system. In such a system, the sequence of subsidence movements and associated flows is just as decisive as lithologic and geometric factors in the formation of a group of pools.” Perrodon & Masse 1984 The elements of a petroleum system consist of source rock, migration path, reservoir rock, seal, and trap, and those elements "must be placed in time and space such that a petroleum deposit can occur.” Magoon 1987 “All of the factors which affect the processes of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation constitute elements of a total system which may be described as a machine.” Meissner et al PS defns University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Bibliography is on next page. The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine”

14 A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of source, migration, reservoir, trap, and seal. LBR “... a petroleum province can be considered as the final result of an organized set of geologic events (in space and in time) that can be called a petroleum system. In such a system, the sequence of subsidence movements and associated flows is just as decisive as lithologic and geometric factors in the formation of a group of pools.” Perrodon & Masse 1984 The elements of a petroleum system consist of source rock, migration path, reservoir rock, seal, and trap, and those elements "must be placed in time and space such that a petroleum deposit can occur.” Magoon 1987 “All of the factors which affect the processes of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation constitute elements of a total system which may be described as a machine.” Meissner et al PS defns University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Bibliography is on next page. The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine”

15 A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of source, migration, reservoir, trap, and seal. LBR “... a petroleum province can be considered as the final result of an organized set of geologic events (in space and in time) that can be called a petroleum system. In such a system, the sequence of subsidence movements and associated flows is just as decisive as lithologic and geometric factors in the formation of a group of pools.” Perrodon & Masse 1984 The elements of a petroleum system consist of source rock, migration path, reservoir rock, seal, and trap, and those elements "must be placed in time and space such that a petroleum deposit can occur.” Magoon 1987 “All of the factors which affect the processes of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation constitute elements of a total system which may be described as a machine.” Meissner et al PS defns University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Bibliography is on next page. The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine”

16 PS refs University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Perrodon, A., and P. Masse, 1984, Subsidence, sedimentation and petroleum systems: Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 7, n. 1, p Magoon, L. B., 1987, The petroleum system—a classification scheme for research, resource assessment, and exploration (abs.): AAPG Bulletin, v. 71, n. 5, p Magoon, L. B., and W. G. Dow, 1994, The petroleum system, in Magoon, L. B, and W. G. Dow, eds., The petroleum system—from source to trap: AAPG Memoir 60, p Meissner, F. F., J. Woodward, and J. L. Clayton, 1984, Stratigraphic relationships and distribution of source rocks in the greater Rocky Mountain region, in J. Woodward, F. F. Meissner, and J. L. Clayton, eds., Hydrocarbon source rocks of the greater Rocky Mountain region: Denver, CO, Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, p

17 The “Petroleum System” and/or the “Hydrocarbon Machine” 1. Deposition of organic-rich sediment 2. Burial of same to temperature for generation of petroleum 3. Availability at Time 2 of migration pathway for petroleum 4. Availability of reservoir, seal, and trap at or after Time 2. PS University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

18 PS University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of source, migration, reservoir, trap, and seal. LBR “... a petroleum province can be considered as the final result of an organized set of geologic events (in space and in time) that can be called a petroleum system. In such a system, the sequence of subsidence movements and associated flows is just as decisive as lithologic and geometric factors in the formation of a group of pool s.” Perrodon & Masse 1984

19 Gussow University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of source, migration, reservoir, trap(s), and seal. Gussow, W. C., 1954, Differential entrapment of oil and gas; a funda- mental principle; American Associ- ation of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 39, p , as re- prised in the Oil and Gas Journal.

20 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The critical moment is that point in time selected by the investigator that best depicts the generation-migration-accumulation of most hydrocarbons in a petroleum system. A map or cross section drawn at the critical moment best shows the geographic and stratigraphic extent of the system. Magoon, L.B., and W. G. Dow, 1994, The petroleum system, in Magoon, L. B, and W. G. Dow, eds., The Petroleum System—From Source to Trap: AAPG Memoir 60, p Critical moment:

21 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The critical moment is that point in time selected by the investigator that best depicts the generation-migration-accumulation of most hydrocarbons in a petroleum system. A map or cross section drawn at the critical moment best shows the geographic and stratigraphic extent of the system. Magoon, L.B., and W. G. Dow, 1994, The petroleum system, in Magoon, L. B, and W. G. Dow, eds., The Petroleum System—From Source to Trap: AAPG Memoir 60, p The critical moment is the time of source-rock maturation and of migration of petroleum into its primary trap. LBR Critical moment:

22 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Mag & Dow Ex

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26 PGSG PS

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28 Arthur & Schlanger

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39 Gluyas & Swarbrick 2004

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48 Selley p. 207 (uniform geothermal gradient) G&S page 75 & 77 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Selley 1998

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50 Gluyas & Swarbrick 2004

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52 Thermal Cond

53 University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Thermal Cond

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55 PGSG PS con

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57 Reef & talus present vs. not present updip from source rocks; res & migrn path present or not (could be opposite side of mirror-image basin) one side with no subsidence and thus no maturation one side with no source rock. Thrusting moves reservoir over younger source rock in foot wall; potential source in hanging wall never matures. Simple source-migrn-res-seal system deposited but leaks updip to seap; fault and/or salt dome (that forms downdip from growth fault) provide traps. Deposition of source over half of sloping deposurface; folding, erosion, and deposition make unconformity trap, but only one side has source beneath. In sequential normal fault block system where source rock covered only half of basin, some blocks have no source rock, and some blocks have no fault seal. Non-vertical strike-slip fault moves anticlinal traps past lacustrine source rocks - earliest gets no charge, later oil, and even later gas. Meandering channel sand is in stratum that is tilted and then faulted; fault provides migration path to meanders updip from fault but not down. PS ex University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

58 Bjørlykke 2010 Gluyas & Swarbrick 2004 Selley 1998 Sources Schlumberger Oilfielld Glossary Conaway 1999 Assaad 2008 Shepherd 2009 Shell Petroleum Handbook (1983) Rigzone Crain’s Petrophysical Handbook North 1980 AAPG Basic Well Log Analysis course notes Schlumberger Log Interpretation P&I Glover’s Petrophysique Asquith and Krygowski 2004 Baker-Hughes Atlas of Log Responses Jonathan B. Martin UF class notes Wikipedia Tissot & Welte (1984) refs Selley 1978, Porosity gradients in North Sea oil-bearing sandstones: Jo. Geol. Soc. London v. 135,

59 Light gray Times New Roman text White sans-serif Helvetica text University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Title Notes Light gray Times New Roman text 14 White sans-serif Helvetica text 14 tools

60 Lighter gray text ? Red text Darker gray text White text Larger red text Maximal Black textTan text Wikipedia image LBR 1/2010 Blue text Orange text ? U Big text with trans bkground Faint blue text So what? White text Gray lines  Darker gray text Black text Powerpoint blue add-ins


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