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Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds Chapter 2: Reactions of Organic Compounds UNIT 1: Organic Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds Chapter 2: Reactions of Organic Compounds UNIT 1: Organic Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds Chapter 2: Reactions of Organic Compounds UNIT 1: Organic Chemistry

3 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds UNIT 1 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds For thousands of years, scientists and Aboriginal peoples have been isolating organic compounds from natural materials, such as birch bark. The properties of these compounds make them useful in a wide variety of applications. TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS

4 1.1 Introducing Organic Compounds UNIT 1 Section 1.1 Until the late 1800s, “organic” meant matter from living systems. “Inorganic” meant matter from non-living systems. Synthesis of urea (organic) from inorganic compounds forced scientists to reconsider their definitions. Modern Definitions TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

5 Important atomic properties of carbon: It is much more likely to share electrons than gain or lose electrons. Therefore, covalent bonding occurs. It has four valence electrons. Therefore, it can be bonded to as many as four different atoms. UNIT 1 Section 1.1 The Special Nature of the Carbon Atom Carbon can bond to four different atoms, producing a molecule with a tetrahedron shape. TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

6 Constitutional or structural isomers: molecules with the same molecular formula, but the atoms are bonded in a different sequence. UNIT 1 Section 1.1 Isomers These molecules are constitutional isomers. TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Most organic molecules consist of more than one carbon atom bonded together in a chain or ring structure. Molecules with the same molecular formula but atoms in different arrangements are known as isomers. Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

7 Stereoisomers: molecules with the same molecular formula and sequence of atoms, but they differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms UNIT 1 Section 1.1 These molecules are diastereomers. TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS diastereomer: stereoisomers based on the presence of a double bond enantiomer: stereoisomers that are mirror-images of each other. Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds Isomers

8 Are the following molecules isomers? If so, what type of isomers are they? UNIT 1 Section 1.1 Answer on the next slide Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

9 Yes they are isomers. They are stereoisomers, not constitutional isomers. Section 1.1 UNIT 1 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

10 Section 1.1 Review UNIT 1 Section 1.1 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS

11 1.2 Hydrocarbons UNIT 1 Section 1.2 aromatic hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are composed of only carbon and hydrogen. The different classes are: alkanes alkenes cyclic hydrocarbons alkynes TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

12 Drawing Hydrocarbons UNIT 1 Section 1.2 line structural formula Five ways to represent hydrocarbon molecules are: empirical molecular formula expanded molecular formula condensed structural formula structural formula TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

13 UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Alkanes TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain only single covalent bonds. The general formula for straight and branched-chain alkanes: C n H 2n+2. When naming and drawing alkanes: identify the root, suffix, and prefix. Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

14 UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Alkenes TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain one or more double bonds. The general formula for straight and branched-chain alkenes: C n H 2n. When naming and drawing alkenes: identify the root, suffix and prefix. For main chains with more than four carbons, the position of the double bond must be indicated. This alkene is named 3-ethyl- 2,2-dimethylhex-1-ene. Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

15 Name the following hydrocarbon and draw its condensed structural formula. UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Answer on the next slide Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

16 The name is: pent-2-ene The condensed structural formula is: Section 1.2 UNIT 1 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

17 UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Alkynes TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain one or more triple bonds. The general formula for straight and branched-chain alkynes: C n H 2n-2. When naming and drawing alkynes: identify the root, suffix, and prefix. For main chains with more than four carbons, the position of the double bond must be indicated. 4-ethylhex-2-yne. Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

18 UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Cyclic Hydrocarbons TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain carbon-based ring structures. Most are alkanes or alkenes. The general formula for cyclic alkanes: C n H 2n. When naming and drawing cyclic hydrocarbons: identify the root, suffix, and prefix. Carbon atoms of a multiple bond are numbered 1 and 2, and side groups are the lowest possible numbers. 3,4-dimethylcyclopentene Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

19 UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Aromatic Hydrocarbons TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Hydrocarbons that are derived from benzene, C 6 H 6. When naming and drawing aromatic hydrocarbons identify the root and prefix. If a benzene ring is bonded to a hydrocarbon chain that is more than six carbons long, the benzene ring is a phenyl side group. Benzene is best represented by the resonance hybrid structure. This aromatic hydrocarbon is 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene. Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

20 A student has named a hydrocarbon as 1-ethyl-5-propylbenzene. Use a drawing of the structure to show why that name is incorrect. What is the correct name? UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Answer on the next slide Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

21 The structure is shown below. Since the side groups should be identified using the lowest possible numbering, the correct name is 1-ethyl-3-propylbenzene Section 1.2 UNIT 1 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

22 UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Hydrocarbons are non-polar (not soluble in water). The shapes and sizes of hydrocarbons affect their boiling points. Many aromatic compounds have strong odours. Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

23 Section 1.2 Review UNIT 1 Section 1.2 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS

24 1.3 Hydrocarbon Derivatives UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Hydrocarbon derivatives have one or more functional groups. TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

25 Hydrocarbon Derivatives UNIT 1 Section 1.3 TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

26 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Alcohols TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain a hydroxyl functional group, -OH When naming and drawing alcohols, identify the root (longest chain with the –OH group) suffix (add –ol to the end of the parent alkane name) prefix (name and number the alkyl side groups) The addition of an –OH group to a hydrocarbon increases the polarity of the molecule. Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

27 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Haloalkanes TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain one or more halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, I). When naming and drawing haloalkanes, identify the root (longest chain with the halogen) suffix (use the alkane name) prefix (name and number the alkyl side groups and halogens) 1,3-dichloro-3-fluoro-2methylbutane Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

28 Draw the structural formula for fluoroethane. Explain why numbers are not required in the prefix of the name. UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Answer on the next slide Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

29 Because there are only two carbon atoms, the number 1 is not used in the prefix to designate the position of the halogen. UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

30 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Aldehydes TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain a formyl group. 3,4-dimethylpentanal When naming and drawing aldehydes, identify the root (longest chain with the formyl group) suffix (ends in –al) prefix (name and number the alkyl side groups) Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

31 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Ketones TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain a carbonyl group bonded to two carbons. When naming and drawing ketones, identify the root (longest chain with the carbonyl group) suffix (position of the carbonyl carbon is indicated and ends in -one) prefix (name and number the alkyl side groups) Butanone Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

32 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Carboxylic Acids TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain a carboxyl group. 2-ethylhexanoic acid When naming and drawing carboxylic acids, identify the root (longest chain with the carboxyl group) suffix (ends in –oic acid ) prefix (name and number the alkyl side groups) Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

33 What functional group do aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids have in common? Section 1.3 UNIT 1 Answer on the next slide Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

34 The carbonyl group Section 1.3 UNIT 1 TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds L EARNING C HECK

35 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Esters TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain a carbonyl group with another oxygen singly bonded to the carbon. When naming and drawing esters, identify the root (the “acid part”) suffix (ends in –oate ) prefix (alkyl group on oxygen and on the main chain) Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

36 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Ethers TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain an oxygen atom singly bonded to two carbon atoms (R-O-R′) An ether is composed of an alkoxy group and parent alkane chain that are connected by an oxygen. When naming and drawing ethers, identify the root (longest chain, or R group) suffix (ends according to the main chain) prefix (indicate the alkoxy group then side groups) Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

37 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Amines TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Primary (R-NH 2 ), secondary (R 2 -NH), or tertiary (R 3 -N) When naming and drawing amines, identify the root (longest chain bonded to the nitrogen) suffix (ends in –amine and indicate position of the N) prefix (indicate alkyl groups on N) Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

38 UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Amides TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS Contain a carbonyl group bonded to a nitrogen When naming and drawing amides, identify the root (longest chain with the carbonyl) suffix (ends in -amide ) prefix (alkyl groups on N, then on main chain) Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

39 Draw the condensed structural formula for each of the following: a.Methylethanoate b. 1-ethoxypropane c. N-ethylpentamide UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Answer on the next slide Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

40 a. b. c. Section 1.3 UNIT 1 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS L EARNING C HECK

41 Section 1.3 Review UNIT 1 Section 1.3 Chapter 1: Structure and Physical Properties of Organic Compounds TO PREVIOUS SLIDEPREVIOUS


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