2Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) names for the first 12 "straight-chain" or "normal" alkanes are:Number of Carbons in chainPrefixC-CC=CC C1Meth-Methane2Eth-EthaneEtheneEthyne3Prop-PropanePropenePropyne4But-ButaneButeneButyne5Pent-PentanePentenePentyne6Hex-HexaneHexeneHexyne7Hept-HeptaneHepteneHeptyne8Oct-OctaneOcteneOctyne9Non-NonaneNoneneNonyne10Dec-DecaneDeceneDecyne11Undec-UndecaneUndeceneUndecyne12Dodec-DodecaneDodeceneDodecyne
3Alkanes and Cycloalkanes The simplest saturated hydrocarbons are called alkanes.Methane, CH4, is the simplest alkane.The alkanes form a homologous series.Each member of the series differs by a specific number and kind of atoms.
4Alkanes and Cycloalkanes The alkanes differ from each other by a CH2 or methylene group.All alkanes have this general formula.CnH2n+2For example ethane, C2H6 , and propane, C3H8 , are the next two family members.
5Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Isomers are chemical compounds that have the same molecular formulas but different structures.Two alkanes have the molecular formula C4H10.They are a specific type of isomer called structural isomers.Branched-chain alkanes are named by the following rules.
6Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons Choose the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms which gives the basic name or stem.Number each carbon atom in the basic chain, starting at the end that gives the lowest number to the first group attached to the main chain (substituent).For each substituent on the chain, we indicate the position in the chain (by an Arabic numeric prefix) and the kind of substituent (by its name).The position of a substituent on the chain is indicated by the lowest number possible. The number precedes the name of the substituent.When there are two or more substituents of a given kind, use prefixes to indicate the number of substituents.di = 2, tri = 3, tetra = 4, penta = 5, hexa = 6, hepta = 7, octa = 8, and so on.The combined substituent numbers and names serve as a prefix for the basic hydrocarbon name.Separate numbers from numbers by commas and numbers from words by hyphens.Words are "run together".
7Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons Alkyl groups (represented by the symbol R) are common substituents.Alkyl groups are fragments of alkanes in which one H atom has been removed for the connection to the main chain.Alkyl groups have the general formula CnH2n+1.In alkyl groups the -ane suffix in the name of the parent alkane is replaced by -yl.A one carbon group is named methyl.A two carbon group is named ethyl.A three carbon group is named propyl.Three alkanes have the formula C5H12.There are three structural isomers of pentane.
8Alkanes and Cycloalkanes There are five isomeric hexanes, C6H14.The number of structural isomers increases rapidly withincreasing numbers of carbon atoms.The boiling points of the alkanes increase with molecular weight.
9Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Cyclic saturated hydrocarbons are called cycloalkanes.They have the general formula CnH2n.Some examples are:
10Alkenes The three classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons are: alkenes and cycloalkenes, CnH2nalkynes and cycloalkynes, CnH2n-2aromatic hydrocarbonsThe simplest alkenes contain one C=C bond per molecule.The general formula for simple alkenes is CnH2n.The first two alkenes are:ethene, C2H4and propene, C3H6Each doubly bonded C atom is sp2 hybridized.The sp2 hybrid consists of:two s bonds (single bonds) andone s and one p bond (double bond)
11AlkenesThe systematic naming system for alkenes uses the same stems as alkanes.In the IUPAC system, the -ane suffix for alkanes is changed to -ene.Common names for the alkenes have the same stem but use the suffix -ylene is used.In chains of four or more C atoms, a numerical prefix shows the position of the lowest-numbered doubly bonded C atom.Always choose the longest chain that contains the C=C bond.Polyenes contain two or more double bonds per molecule.Indicate the number of double bonds with suffixes:-adiene for two double bonds.-atriene for three double bonds, etc.The positions of the substituents are indicated as for alkanes.The position of the C=C bond(s) is/are given the lowest number(s) possible.
12Cycloalkenes Cycloalkenes have the general formula CnH2n-2. Examples are:cyclopentenecyclohexene
13Alkynes Alkynes with only one C C bond have the formula CnH2n-2. Alkynes contain CC bonds.The simplest alkyne is C2H2, ethyne, or acetylene.Alkynes with only one C C bond have the formula CnH2n-2.Each carbon atom in a C C bond is sp hybridized.Each sp hybrid contains two bonds and two bonds.The carbon atom will have one single bond and one triple bond.Alkynes are named like the alkenes except that the suffix -yne is used with the characteristic stemThe alkyne stem is derived from the name of the alkane with the same number of carbon atoms.
15Aromatic Hydrocarbons Historically, aromatic was used to describe pleasant smelling substances.Now it refers to benzene, C6H6, and derivatives of benzene.Other compounds that have similar chemical properties to benzene are also called aromatic.The structure of benzene, C6H6, is:Coal tar is the common source of benzene and many other aromatic compounds.Some aromatic hydrocarbons thatcontain fused rings are:napthalene
16Resonance in Benzene π electrons delocalized C–C single bond = 154 pm C=C bond = 134 pmCC bonds in benzene = 139 pmC6H6 has two resonance structures with alternating double bonds.The π electrons are delocalized over the ring.π electrons delocalized
17Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons Many aromatic hydrocarbons contain alkyl groups attached to benzene rings (as well as to other aromatic rings).The positions of the substituents on benzene rings are indicated by the prefixes:ortho- (o-) for substituents on adjacent C atomsmeta- (m-) for substituents on C atoms 1 and 3para- (p-) for substituents on C atoms 1 and 4
18Organic HalidesA halogen atom may replace almost any hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon.The functional group is the halide (-X) group.Examples include:chloroform, CHCl31,2-dichloroethane, ClCH2CH2Clpara-dichlorobenzene
19Alcohols and PhenolsThe functional group in alcohols and phenols is the hydroxyl(-OH) group.Alcohols and phenols can be considered derivatives of hydrocarbons in which one or more H atoms have been replaced by -OH groups.Phenols are derivatives of benzene in which one H has been replaced by replaced by -OH group.The stem for the parent hydrocarbon plus an -ol suffix is the systematic name for an alcohol.A numeric prefix indicates the position of the -OH group in alcohols with three or more C atoms.Common names are the name of the appropriate alkyl group plus alcohol.
20Alcohols and Phenols H H H C C O H H H Ethyl alcohol (ethanol), C2H5OH, is the most familiar alcohol.HHHCCOHHHPhenol, C6H5OH, is the most familiar phenol.
21Alcohols and Phenols Secondary(2°) alcohols have the –OH group Alcohols can be classified into three classes:Primary (1°) alcohols like ethanol have the -OH group attached to a C atom that has one bond to another C atom.Secondary(2°) alcohols have the –OH groupattached to a C atom that has bonds to2 other C atoms.For example,2-propanol:Tertiary (3°) alcohols have the –OH group attached to a C atom that is bonded to 3 other C atoms.For example, 2-methyl-2-propanol
22Alcohols and PhenolsAlcohols are named using the stem for the parent hydrocarbon plus an -ol suffix in the systematic nomenclature.A numeric prefix indicates the position of the -OH group in alcohols with three or more C atoms.Common alcohol names are the name of the appropriate alkyl group plus the word alcohol.
23Alcohols and PhenolsThere are several isomeric monohydric acyclic (contains no rings) alcohols that contain more than three C atoms.There are four isomeric four-carbon alcohols.
24Alcohols and PhenolsThere are eight isomeric five-carbon alcohols.
25Alcohols and PhenolsPolyhydric alcohols contain more than one -OH group per molecule.
26Alcohols and PhenolsPhenols are usually called by their common (trivial) names.
27Ethers Ethers are not very polar and not very reactive. Ethers may be thought of as derivatives of water in which both H atoms have been replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.Ethers are not very polar and not very reactive.They are excellent solvents.Common names are used for most ethers.
28Aldehydes and KetonesThe functional group in aldehydes and ketones is the carbonyl group.
29Aldehydes and KetonesExcept for formaldehyde, aldehydes have one H atom and one organic group bonded to a carbonyl group.Ketones have two organic groups bonded to a carbonyl group.
30Aldehydes and KetonesCommon names for aldehydes are derived from the name of the acid with the same number of C atoms.IUPAC names are derived from the parent hydrocarbon name by replacing -e with -al.
31Aldehydes and KetonesThe IUPAC name for a ketone is the characteristic stem for the parent hydrocarbon plus the suffix -one.A numeric prefix indicates the position of the carbonyl group in a chain or on a ring.
32AminesAmines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more H atoms have been replaced by organic groups (aliphatic or aromatic or a mixture of both).There are three classes of amines.
33Carboxylic AcidsCarboxylic acids contain the carboxyl functional group.The general formula for carboxylic acids is:R represents an alkyl or an aryl groupIUPAC names for a carboxylic acid are derived from the name of the parent hydrocarbon.The final -e is dropped from the name of the parent hydrocarbonThe suffix -oic is added followed by the word acid.Many organic acids are called by their common (trivial) names which are derived from Greek or Latin.
35Carboxylic AcidsPositions of substituents on carboxylic acid chains are indicated by numeric prefixes as in other compoundsBegin the counting scheme from the carboxyl group carbon atom.They are also often indicated by lower case Greek letters. = 1st C atom = 2nd C atom = 3rd C atom, etc.
36Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids Dicarboxylic acids contain two carboxyl groups per molecule.
37Carboxylic AcidsAromatic acids are usually called by their common names.Sometimes, they are named as derivatives of benzoic acid which is considered to be the "parent" aromatic acid.
39Alcohols and Phenols Ethers Aldehydes and Ketones Amines The stem for the parent hydrocarbon plus an -ol suffix is the systematic name for an alcohol.A numeric prefix indicates the position of the -OH group in alcohols with three or more C atoms.Common names are the name of the appropriate alkyl group plus alcohol.EthersCommon names are used for most ethers.Aldehydes and KetonesCommon names for aldehydes are derived from the name of the acid with the same number of C atoms.IUPAC names are derived from the parent hydrocarbon name by replacing -e with -al.The IUPAC name for a ketone is the characteristic stem for the parent hydrocarbon plus the suffix -one.A numeric prefix indicates the position of the carbonyl group in a chain or on a ring.AminesAmines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more H atoms have been replaced by organic groups (aliphatic or aromatic or a mixture of both).There are three classes of amines.Carboxylic AcidsIUPAC names for a carboxylic acid are derived from the name of the parent hydrocarbon.The final -e is dropped from the name of the parent hydrocarbonThe suffix -oic is added followed by the word acid.Many organic acids are called by their common (trivial) names which are derived from Greek or Latin.
40When compounds contain more than one functional group, the order of precedence determines which groups are named with prefix or suffix forms. The highest precedence group takes the suffix, with all others taking the prefix form. However, double and triple bonds only take suffix form (-en and -yn) and are used with other suffixes.PriorityFunctional groupFormulaPrefixSuffix1Cations e.g. Ammonium –NH4+-onio- ammonio--onium -ammonium2Carboxylic acids–COOHcarboxy--oic acid*3Carboxylic acid derivatives Esters Acyl chlorides Amides –COOR –COCl –CONH2 R-oxycarbonyl- chloroformyl- carbamoyl- -oyl chloride* -amide*4Nitrites Isocyanides–CN –NCcyano- isocyano--nitrile* isocyanide5Aldehydes Thioaldehydes–CHO –CHSformyl- thioformyl--al* -thial*6Ketones Thioketones>CO >CSoxo- thiono--one -thione7Alcohols Thiols–OH –SHhydroxy- sulfanyl--ol -thiol8Amines–NH2amino--amine9Ethers Thioethers–O– –S–-oxy- -thio-
42Isomerism Isomers have identical composition but different structures Two forms of isomerismConstitutional (or structural)StereoisomerismConstitutionalSame empirical formula but different atom-to-atom connectionsSame atom-to-atom connections but different arrangement in space.Geometric - Geometric isomers can occur when there is a C=C double bond.Optical - Optical isomers are molecules with non-superimposable mirror images. Such molecules are called CHIRAL. Pairs of chiral molecules are enantiomers. Chiral molecules in solution can rotate the plane of plane polarized light.
44Stereoisomers: Geometric Geometric isomers can occur when there is a C=C double bond.Trans-2-buteneCis-2-butene
45Stereoisomers: Optical Optical isomers are molecules with non-superimposable mirror images.Such molecules are called CHIRALPairs of chiral molecules are enantiomers.Chiral molecules in solution can rotate the plane of plane polarized light.Chirality generally occurs when a C atom has 4 different groups attached.Lactic acid
46Chirality: Handedness in Nature These molecules are non-superimposable mirror images.
47Sugars: Related to Alcohols Sugars are carbohydrates, compounds with the formula Cx(H2O)y.What is the difference between a and b D-glucose?Glycosidic bonds: The anomeric hydroxyl group (axial) and a hydroxyl group of another sugar or some other compound can join together, splitting out water to form a glycosidic bond.R-OH + HO-R' --> R-O-R' + H2O
48Monosaccharides - simple sugars, with multiple hydroxyl groups. Carbohydrates (also referred to as glycans) have the basic composition:Monosaccharides - simple sugars, with multiple hydroxyl groups.Based on the number of carbons (e.g., 3, 4, 5, or 6) a monosaccharide is a triose, tetrose, pentose, or hexose, etc.Disaccharides - two monosaccharides covalently linkedOligosaccharides - a few monosaccharides covalently linked.Polysaccharides - polymers consisting of chains of monosaccharide or disaccharide unitsAldoses (e.g., glucose) have an aldehyde at one end.Ketoses (e.g., fructose) have a keto group, usually at C #2.
49Nomenclature for stereoisomers: D and L designations are based on the configuration about the single asymmetric carbon in glyceraldehyde. For sugars with more than one chiral center, the D or L designation refers to the asymmetric carbon farthest from the aldehyde or keto group.Most naturally occurring sugars are D isomers.D & L sugars are mirror images of one another. They have the same name. For example, D-glucose and L-glucose are shown at right.Haworth projections represent the cyclic sugars as having essentially planar rings, with the OH at the anomeric C1 extending either:below the ring (a)above the ring (b).
50Sucrose and Ribose Deoxyribose, the sugar in the DNA backbone. Sucrose, common table sugar, has a glycosidic bond linking the anomeric hydroxyls of glucose and fructose. Because the configuration at the anomeric carbon of glucose is a (O points down from the ring), the linkage is designated a(1®2). The full name is a-D-glucopyranosyl-(1®2)b-D- fructopyranose.
51Fats and Oils R = organic group with NO C=C bonds C12 = Lauric acid C16 = Palmitic acidC18 = Stearic acidWhat is the functional group in a fat or oil?R = organic group with C=C bondsC18 = oleic acid
52Fats with C=C bonds are usually LIQUDS Fats and OilsFats with C=C bonds are usually LIQUDSOleic acid: a monounsaturated fatty acidC=C bond
53Trans Fatty Acids Oleic acid is a mono–unsaturated cis-fatty acid Trans fatty acids have deleterious health effects.Trans fatty acids raise plasma LDL cholesterol and lower HDL levels.C=C bond
55- - - Peptides and Proteins – H2O Adding more peptide links ---> PROTEIN
56PolymersGiant molecules made by joining many small molecules called monomersAverage production is 150 kg per person annually in the U.S.
57Polymer Classifications Thermoplastics (polyethylene) soften and flow when heatedThermosetting plastics — soft initially but set to solid when heated. Cannot be resoftened.Other classification: plastics, fibers, elastomers, coatings, adhesivesNational Liner is a premium cured-in-place pipe trenchless rehabilitationsystem designed to repair sanitary and stormwater pipelines rangingfrom to 120 in. in diameter. Made of non-woven, needled polyester feltand saturated with a thermosetting resin, the liner is inserted into anupstream manhole and expanded with a hydrostatic head of water topress the liner tightly against the interior of the host pipe. Once in place,the liner is heated to activate the resin system, causing the resin to cure,and form a new structural pipe within the host pipe.National Envirotech Group Houston,TX Tel: Web:www.nationalliner.com
58Polymer PreparationAddition polymers — directly adding monomer units togetherCondensation polymers — combining monomer units and splitting out a small water (water)
59Types of Polyethylene Linear, high density PE (HDPE) Branched, low density PE, LDPECross-linked PE, CLPE
60Types of PolyethyleneTable 11.12: others are PVC, acrylonitrile, polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate