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Other Organic Compounds
Hydrocarbon derivatives are organic molecules that contain one or more elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen.
A functional group is an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon derivatives that contain elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen.
In developing a general formula for types of organic compounds, the symbol R is used.
R represents a hydrocarbon fragment. Example: methyl group
The symbol R is from the German radikal.
A second R group is called R and a third R group is called R .
Alcohols have the general formula R OH.
In the case of alcohols, the hydroxyl group, OH 1 is a substituent on a hydrocarbon.
Alcohols are named by replacing the e on the end of the parent hydrocarbon with ol.
Numbering may be necessary. The hydroxyl group is to be on the lowest number carbon.
Example: CH 3 OH is methanol because the R group comes from methane.
ethanol CH 3 CH 2 OH
1-propanol CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH
2-propanol CH 3 CHCH 3 OH
6-bromo-2-methyl-2-hexanol CH 3 CH 3 CCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 Br OH
An ether is an organic compound in which two hydrocarbon groups are joined to an oxygen.
The general formula for an ether is R O R
It is named with oxy in between the R group names.
CH 3 OCH 2 CH 3 is named methoxyethane
CH 3 OCH 3 methoxymethane
CH 3 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 3 ethoxyethane
Ethoxyethane (commonly called diethyl ether) was once the ether most widely used as an anesthetic in surgery.
The carbonyl group is C=O.
An aldehyde is an organic compound containing the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen.
The general formula of an aldehyde is O ║ R C H
Aldehydes are named with the suffix al instead of the usual hydrocarbon ending.
The aldehyde carbon is always assigned as number one for referencing substituent positions in the name. Therefore, numbering is not necessary.
The name of the parent chain includes the carbon in the aldehyde.
CH 3 CH 2 CHO is propanal.
CH 3 CHO ethanal
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CHO butanal
A ketone is an organic compound containing the carbonyl group.
The general formula of a ketone is O ║ R C R
Ketones are named with the final e being replaced by one and a number indicates the position of the carbonyl group where necessary.
The name of the parent chain includes the carbon in the ketone.
CH 3 COCH 2 CH 3 is called 2-butanone.
CH 3 COCH 3 propanone
CH 3 COCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 2-pentanone
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound containing the carboxyl group.
A carboxylic acid has the general formula RCOOH.
O ║ R C OH
Carboxylic acids are named by changing the suffix of the parent hydrocarbon to oic acid.
The carbons are numbered so the carbon in the carboxyl group is the number one carbon.
CH 3 COOH is ethanoic acid.
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH pentanoic acid
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH butanoic acid
Br CH 3 CH 3 CHCHCOOH 3-bromo-2-methylbutanoic acid
An ester is an organic compound produced by the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
Esters often have a sweet, fruity odor that is in contrast to the often pungent odors of the parent carboxylic acids.
An ester has the general formula RCOOR.
O ║ R C O R
Esters are named by naming the R groups on either side of the COO group.
The R group bonded to the oxygen will have a yl ending and the R group bonded to the C=O will have an oate ending.
The carbon in the carbonyl group is counted with the carbon to which it is attached.
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OOCCH 3 is propyl ethanoate
O ║ CH 3 C O(CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 octyl ethanoate
HCOOCH 3 methyl methanoate
CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CHCH 2 COOCHCH 3 isopropyl 3-methylbutanoate
An amine is an organic base derived from ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups.
An amine has the general structure R NH 2.
Amines are named with by changing the parent hydrocarbon’s suffix to amine.
CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 ethanamine
Amines can be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on the number of N H bonds that have been replaced by N C bonds.
CH 3 NH 2 is a primary amine.
(CH 3 ) 2 NH is a secondary amine.
(CH 3 ) 3 N is a tertiary amine.
An amide is an organic compound whose molecules have any one of the following groups:
CONH 2 CONHR CONR 2
Amides are named by changing the parent hydrocarbon’s suffix to amide.
CH 3 CONH 2 ethanamide
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CONH 2 pentanamide
Nitriles have the general formula R C N.
Nitriles are named by adding the word “nitrile” to the parent hydrocarbon.
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CN butanenitrile
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CN pentanenitrile
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