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Chapter 14 Clickers Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Organic Compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Clickers Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Organic Compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Clickers Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Organic Compounds

2 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Why does the melting point of hydrocarbons increase as the number of carbon atoms per molecule increases? a)Because of greater induced dipole–induced dipole molecular attractions. b)An increase in the number of carbon atoms per molecules also means an increase in the density of the hydrocarbon. c)The molecular mass also increases. d)Larger hydrocarbon chains tend to be branched.

3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Why does the melting point of hydrocarbons increase as the number of carbon atoms per molecule increases? a)Because of greater induced dipole–induced dipole molecular attractions. b)An increase in the number of carbon atoms per molecules also means an increase in the density of the hydrocarbon. c)The molecular mass also increases. d)Larger hydrocarbon chains tend to be branched.

4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Hydrocarbons release a lot of energy when ignited. Where does this energy ultimately come from? a)The formation of chemical bonds. b)Photosynthesis. c)The breaking of chemical bonds. d)Nuclear fusion in the Sun.

5 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Hydrocarbons release a lot of energy when ignited. Where does this energy ultimately come from? a)The formation of chemical bonds. b)Photosynthesis. c)The breaking of chemical bonds. d)Nuclear fusion in the Sun.

6 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How many structural isomers are shown here? a)1 b)2 c)3 d)none

7 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How many structural isomers are shown here? a)1 b)2 c)3 d)none

8 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. A BC D Which two of these four structures are the same? a)A and B. b)B and C. c)C and D. d)D and A.

9 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. A BC D Which two of these four structures are the same? a)A and B. b)B and C. c)C and D. d)D and A.

10 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How many structural isomers are there for hydrocarbons having the molecular formula C 5 H 12 ? a)3 b)4 c)5 d)6

11 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How many structural isomers are there for hydrocarbons having the molecular formula C 5 H 12 ? a)3 b)4 c)5 d)6

12 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How many structural isomers are there for hydrocarbons having the molecular formula C 6 H 14 ? a)3 b)4 c)5 d)6

13 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How many structural isomers are there for hydrocarbons having the molecular formula C 6 H 14 ? a)3 b)4 c)5 d)6

14 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How many structural isomers are there for hydrocarbons having the molecular formula C 8 H 18 ? a)3 b)4 c)6 d)8 e)More than 10

15 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How many structural isomers are there for hydrocarbons having the molecular formula C 8 H 18 ? a)3 b)4 c)6 d)8 e)More than 10 Explanation: There are 18 different structural isomers for this formula. For higher formulas the number of different structural isomers grows exponentially.

16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. In a fractionating tower, crude oil vapors pass from the pipe still into the column. Closer to the bottom of the column, kerosene is pulled off before gasoline, which is pulled off closer to the top. From this information, which has a higher boiling point, gasoline or kerosene? a)Gasoline has the higher boiling point. b)Kerosene has the higher boiling point. c)Their boiling points are the same, but kerosene has the greater density. d)Fractional distillation components are pulled off based on molecular weight, so it is not possible to know which has the higher boiling point from the information given.

17 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. In a fractionating tower, crude oil vapors pass from the pipe still into the column. Closer to the bottom of the column, kerosene is pulled off before gasoline, which is pulled off closer to the top. From this information, which has a higher boiling point, gasoline or kerosene? a)Gasoline has the higher boiling point. b)Kerosene has the higher boiling point. c)Their boiling points are the same, but kerosene has the greater density. d)Fractional distillation components are pulled off based on molecular weight, so it is not possible to know which has the higher boiling point from the information given.

18 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbon–carbon single bonds can rotate, but carbon–carbon double bonds cannot rotate. How many different structures are shown below? a)1 b)2 c)3 d)4

19 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbon–carbon single bonds can rotate, but carbon–carbon double bonds cannot rotate. How many different structures are shown below? a)1 b)2 c)3 d)4

20 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which contains more hydrogen atoms: a five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon molecule, or a five-carbon unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule? a)The unsaturated hydrocarbon has more hydrogen atoms. b)The saturated hydrocarbon has more hydrogen atoms. c)They both have the same number of hydrogen atoms. d)It depends upon whether the unsaturation is due to a double or a triple bond.

21 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which contains more hydrogen atoms: a five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon molecule, or a five-carbon unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule? a)The unsaturated hydrocarbon has more hydrogen atoms. b)The saturated hydrocarbon has more hydrogen atoms. c)They both have the same number of hydrogen atoms. d)It depends upon whether the unsaturation is due to a double or a triple bond.

22 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Heteroatoms make a difference in the physical and chemical properties of an organic molecule, because a)they add extra mass to the hydrocarbon structure. b)each heteroatom has its own characteristic chemistry. c)they can enhance the polarity of the organic molecule. d)all of the above.

23 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Heteroatoms make a difference in the physical and chemical properties of an organic molecule, because a)they add extra mass to the hydrocarbon structure. b)each heteroatom has its own characteristic chemistry. c)they can enhance the polarity of the organic molecule. d)all of the above.

24 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Why is 2,4,5-trifluorophenol much more acidic than phenol? a)The fluorines have high electronegativities and help to stabilize the negative charges. b)The fluorines adjacent to the OH group are large and shield the hydroxyl group from making the solution basic. c)The fluorines destabilize the benzene ring and thus give the structure more acidic characteristics. d)False! 2,4,5-Trifluorophenol is actually not more acidic than phenol.

25 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Why is 2,4,5-trifluorophenol much more acidic than phenol? a)The fluorines have high electronegativities and help to stabilize the negative charges. b)The fluorines adjacent to the OH group are large and shield the hydroxyl group from making the solution basic. c)The fluorines destabilize the benzene ring and thus give the structure more acidic characteristics. d)False! 2,4,5-Trifluorophenol is actually not more acidic than phenol.

26 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The solvent diethyl ether can be mixed with water but only by shaking the two liquids together. After the shaking is stopped, the liquids separate into two layers, much like oil and vinegar. The free-base form of the alkaloid caffeine is readily soluble in diethyl ether but not in water. Suggest what might happen to the caffeine of a caffeinated beverage if the beverage was first made alkaline with sodium hydroxide and then shaken with some diethyl ether. a)The caffeine would transform into the free base and transfer into the diethyl ether. b)The caffeine would transform into the free acid and transfer into the diethyl ether. c)The water layer would turn a pink color indicating an alkaline pH. d)The diethyl ether and water would mix into one layer.

27 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The solvent diethyl ether can be mixed with water but only by shaking the two liquids together. After the shaking is stopped, the liquids separate into two layers, much like oil and vinegar. The free-base form of the alkaloid caffeine is readily soluble in diethyl ether but not in water. Suggest what might happen to the caffeine of a caffeinated beverage if the beverage was first made alkaline with sodium hydroxide and then shaken with some diethyl ether. a)The caffeine would transform into the free base and transfer into the diethyl ether. b)The caffeine would transform into the free acid and transfer into the diethyl ether. c)The water layer would turn a pink color indicating an alkaline pH. d)The diethyl ether and water would mix into one layer.

28 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The amino acid lysine is shown below. What functional group must be removed in order to produce cadaverine (1,5-pentanediamine)? a)The hydrogen (shown) must be removed and replaced with an amino (NH 2 ) group. b)Lysine is 1,5-pentanediamine. Nothing has to be removed. c)The carboxyl group must be removed and replaced with a hydrogen. d)One amino group must be removed and replaced with a hydrogen.

29 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The amino acid lysine is shown below. What functional group must be removed in order to produce cadaverine (1,5-pentanediamine)? a)The hydrogen (shown) must be removed and replaced with an amino (NH 2 ) group. b)Lysine is 1,5-pentanediamine. Nothing has to be removed. c)The carboxyl group must be removed and replaced with a hydrogen. d)One amino group must be removed and replaced with a hydrogen.

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. One solution to the problem of overflowing landfills is to burn plastics instead of burying them. What would be some of the advantages and disadvantages of this practice? a)Disadvantage: toxic air pollutants. Advantage: reduced landfill volume. b)Disadvantage: loss of vital petroleum-based resource. Advantage: generation of electricity. c)Disadvantage: discourages recycling. Advantage: provides new jobs. d)All of the above.

31 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. One solution to the problem of overflowing landfills is to burn plastics instead of burying them. What would be some of the advantages and disadvantages of this practice? a)Disadvantage: toxic air pollutants. Advantage: reduced landfill volume. b)Disadvantage: loss of vital petroleum-based resource. Advantage: generation of electricity. c)Disadvantage: discourages recycling. Advantage: provides new jobs. d)All of the above.

32 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The copolymer styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), shown below, is used for making tires as well as bubble gum. Is it an addition polymer or a condensation polymer? a)SBR is a condensation polymer. b)SBR is neither an addition nor a condensation polymer. c)SBR is an addition polymer. d)SBR is both an addition and a condensation polymer.

33 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The copolymer styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), shown below, is used for making tires as well as bubble gum. Is it an addition polymer or a condensation polymer? a)SBR is a condensation polymer. b)SBR is neither an addition nor a condensation polymer. c)SBR is an addition polymer. d)SBR is both an addition and a condensation polymer.

34 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The compound 6-aminohexanoic acid is used to make the condensation polymer nylon-6. Polymerization is not always successful, however, because of a competing side reaction. What is this side reaction? a)One 6-aminohexanoic acid reacts with another, and this reaction is favored in dilute solutions. b)One end of the 6-aminohexanoic acid reacts with the other, and this reaction is favored in concentrated solutions. c)One end of the 6-aminohexanoic acid reacts with the other, and this reaction is favored in dilute solutions. d)One 6-aminohexanoic acid reacts with another, and this reaction is favored in concentrated solutions.

35 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The compound 6-aminohexanoic acid is used to make the condensation polymer nylon-6. Polymerization is not always successful, however, because of a competing side reaction. What is this side reaction? a)One 6-aminohexanoic acid reacts with another, and this reaction is favored in dilute solutions. b)One end of the 6-aminohexanoic acid reacts with the other, and this reaction is favored in concentrated solutions. c)One end of the 6-aminohexanoic acid reacts with the other, and this reaction is favored in dilute solutions. d)One 6-aminohexanoic acid reacts with another, and this reaction is favored in concentrated solutions.

36 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which accurately depicts the order of the year in which these plastics were developed? Left to right from earliest to latest: a)Nylon, Rubber, Polyethylene, Saran. b)Rubber, Polyethylene, Nylon, Saran. c)Nylon, Saran, Polyethylene, Rubber. d)Rubber, Nylon, Saran, Polyethylene.

37 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which accurately depicts the order of the year in which these plastics were developed? Left to right from earliest to latest: a)Nylon, Rubber, Polyethylene, Saran. b)Rubber, Polyethylene, Nylon, Saran. c)Nylon, Saran, Polyethylene, Rubber. d)Rubber, Nylon, Saran, Polyethylene.

38 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Organic chemicals are so suitable for making drugs because a)our bodies are also made of organic chemicals. b)they can be produced fairly inexpensively from petroleum. c)of the vast diversity of structures they can form. d)they tend to dissolve well within the bloodstream.

39 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Organic chemicals are so suitable for making drugs because a)our bodies are also made of organic chemicals. b)they can be produced fairly inexpensively from petroleum. c)of the vast diversity of structures they can form. d)they tend to dissolve well within the bloodstream.

40 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which is better for you: a drug that is a natural product or one that is synthetic? a)Whether a drug is good for you does not depend upon whether the drug occurs naturally or was synthesized in the laboratory. b)Synthetic products are generally better for you, because they lack impurities that could bring on side effects. c)Drugs extracted from natural products are invariably better for you. d)Drugs extracted from natural products are better except in the case where the synthetic drug is a replica of the drug found in nature.

41 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which is better for you: a drug that is a natural product or one that is synthetic? a)Whether a drug is good for you does not depend upon whether the drug occurs naturally or was synthesized in the laboratory. b)Synthetic products are generally better for you, because they lack impurities that could bring on side effects. c)Drugs extracted from natural products are invariably better for you. d)Drugs extracted from natural products are better except in the case where the synthetic drug is a replica of the drug found in nature.

42 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 1-chlorobutane and 2-chloro-3-methylpropane are examples of: a)conformational isomers. b)structural isomers. c)geometric isomers. d)stereoisomers.

43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 1-chlorobutane and 2-chloro-3-methylpropane are examples of: a)conformational isomers. b)structural isomers. c)geometric isomers. d)stereoisomers.


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