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1 Geology 1001/1101 Sec 003 Chris Paola Class 13: energy.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Geology 1001/1101 Sec 003 Chris Paola Class 13: energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Geology 1001/1101 Sec 003 Chris Paola Class 13: energy

2 2 Key ideas about energy Energy use is linked fundamentally to population, population density, and GDP Total world energy consumption, now and projected Geology-related energy sources

3 3 Geology & energy ~85% of current energy use is from fossil fuels: oil, gas (hydrocarbons) and coal All fossil fuel energy is fossil solar energy All fossil fuel energy is linked to life and thus to carbon Are we running out of hydrocarbons? The “peak oil” debate Nuclear energy Geothermal energy

4 4 Key points How hydrocarbons form Measuring the reserves, oil field sizes Definitions: oil and gas units, discoveries, proven reserves, ultimate recoverable reserves “Unconventional” hydrocarbons: shale gas, shale oil, tar sands A little about coal

5 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

6 6 Energy and power Energy (work) –Joules –BTUs: 1 BTU = 1055 J –Quad = BTU = 1.055x10 18 J (1.055 ExaJ) –Kilowatt-hour: 1 KWH = J –Calorie (food): 1 Cal = 4187 J Power: energy per time (energy rate) –1 Joule/sec = 1 Watt –1 HP = 746 Watt US energy consumption (power), per capita: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt)

7 7 Energy and power Energy (work) –1 gallon [U.S.] of automotive gasoline = Mjoule –1 gallon [U.S.] of automotive gasoline = Calorie [nutritional] –Kilowatt-hour: 1 KWH = J –Calorie (food): 1 Cal = 4187 J Power: energy per time (energy rate) –1 Joule/sec = 1 Watt –1 HP = 746 Watt US energy consumption (power), per capita: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt)

8 8 Energy equivalents 1 Quad = BTU = x J =  8 x 10 9 Gallons (US) of gasoline  172 x 10 6 Barrels of oil  293 x 10 9 Kilowatt-hours (kWh)  36 x 10 6 Tonnes of coal  970 x 10 9 cubic feet of natural gas (~1 TCF)  6 x 10 9 UK gallons of diesel oil  25 x 10 6 Tonnes of oil solar input at surface: 168 W/m 2 x 10 6 x 510,065,600 km 2 x 3.1x10 7 sec = 2.66 x 10 6 EJ per year

9 9 Energy per person Our per-person average consumption: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt) In one year: 3.59 x 10 5 MJ = 359,000 MJ (mega joules) =  59 barrels of oil OR  332,000 cubic feet of natural gas OR  15 tonnes of coal OR  67.9 m 2 of sunlight (at 100% conversion)

10 10 World energy consumption 2008 total world energy consumption, per year: 474×10 18 J (474 EJ or 449 Quad) 80-90% derived from the combustion of fossil fuels Oil equivalent: 77 x 10 9 (billion) barrels (Bbbl) Actual world annual, oil only: 31 x 10 9 (billion) barrels (Bbbl)

11 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

12 12 Total world energy consumption

13 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

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17 17 Where in the world was oil first produced for human consumption? Texas? Middle east? California? Caucasus?

18 JMA The Goal - ‘Black Gold’ Light Texas Crude Palo Pinto Field North Texas Light Texas Crude Palo Pinto Field North Texas Heavy Texas Crude Humble Oil Field Southwest Texas Heavy Texas Crude Humble Oil Field Southwest Texas Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

19 JMA What is Petroleum? Petroleum:a natural yellow-to-black flammable liquid hydrocarbon found beneath the earth’s surface Petroleum:a natural yellow-to-black flammable liquid hydrocarbon found beneath the earth’s surface Hydrocarbon:an organic compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms Hydrocarbon:an organic compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

20 JMA Petroleum Products Gasoline gallons A Barrel of Crude Oil Provides: Fuel Oil gallons Jet Fuel gallons Asphalt gallons Kerosene gallons Lubricants gallons Petrochemicals, other products gallons One Barrel = 42 gallons American Petroleum Institute, 1999 Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

21 JMA Projected World Energy Supplies Projected World Energy Supplies BILLION BARRELS Billion Barrels of Oil Equivalent perYear (GBOE) Billion Barrels of Oil Equivalent perYear (GBOE) Natural Gas Natural Gas Hydroelectric Crude Oil Solar, Wind Geothermal Nuclear Electric 1993 Coal Decreasing Fossil Fuels New Technologies World Energy Demand after Edwards, AAPG 8/97 Careers in Oil & Gas Remain Important Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

22 JMA Global Exploration Global Oil and Gas FieldsGasOil Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

23 JMA US Hydrocarbon Occurrence Largest 25 Oil Fields by Ultimate Recovery Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

24 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company Deposition Erosion

25 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

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27 27 Hydrocarbon formation

28 28 Hydrocarbon formation

29 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

30 30 Hydrocarbon formation

31 JMA Petroleum System Processes Accumulation Source Rock Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

32 JMA Petroleum System Processes Generation - Burial of source rock to temperature and pressure regime sufficient to convert organic matter into hydrocarbon Generation - Burial of source rock to temperature and pressure regime sufficient to convert organic matter into hydrocarbon Migration - Movement of hydrocarbon out of the source rock toward and into a trap Migration - Movement of hydrocarbon out of the source rock toward and into a trap Accumulation - A volume of hydrocarbon migrating into a trap faster than the trap leaks resulting in an accumulation Accumulation - A volume of hydrocarbon migrating into a trap faster than the trap leaks resulting in an accumulation Preservation - Hydrocarbon remains in reservoir and is not altered by biodegradation or “water-washing” Preservation - Hydrocarbon remains in reservoir and is not altered by biodegradation or “water-washing” Timing - Trap forms before and during hydrocarbon migrating Timing - Trap forms before and during hydrocarbon migrating Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

33 JMA A hydrocarbon “trap”: anticline Gas Gas Oil Oil Water Petroleum Accumulates in Structural Closure Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

34 34 More hydrocarbon traps

35 JMA 3D Seismic Image - Submarine Fan Armentrout et al., Less Confined Flow Confined Flow New Tools Better Data Improved Understanding Hummocky Channel Levee Lobate Mound Sheet-Form Fan

36 36 Hydrocarbons: drilling

37 37 Where in the world was oil first produced for human consumption? China (349) Pennsylvania (1859)

38 38 Are we running out of oil?

39 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

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42 42 Who was M. King Hubbert and what is “Hubbert’s Peak”? Hubbert the person……Hubbert the icon

43 43 Hubbert’s prediction

44 44 Source: J. LaHerrere, Oil & Gas Journal, 2000

45 45 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

46 46 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

47 47 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ. Resources have limits, but is the limit quantifiable?

48 48 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

49 49 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

50 50 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

51 51 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

52 52 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

53 53 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

54 54 Hubbert’s prediction revisited

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56 56 From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ. Note: we have used ~ 1 Trillion bbl so far

57 57 Unconventional hydrocarbons

58 58 Tar sand Athabaska sands, Alberta

59 59 Tar sand reserve: 3.6 x 10 9 (trillion) barrels in Canada and Venezuela alone For comparison: Current world total energy consumption in oil equivalent: 77 billion bbl Conventional oil reserves: 1.75 trillion bbl

60 60 Shale gas Gas-bearing shale, Alberta

61 61 Shale gas

62 62 Shale gas

63 63 Shale gas reserve: 616 x 10 9 (trillion) cubic feet (TCF) in US alone For comparison: Current world total energy consumption in gas equivalent: 77 billion bbl Conventional gas reserves: 6300 TCF

64 64 What we don’t like about hydrocarbons…

65 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

66 66 Gulf Coast Oil Spill, 2010

67 67 Coal: fossilized marsh

68 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

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71 FIGURE Coal strip mine, Buskin, Indiana.

72 Jordan, The Essential Earth 1e © 2008 by W. H. Freeman and Company

73 73 Coal reserves Estimated total reserve: 843 Gton Current usage: 6.4 Gton/yr

74 74 Other Earth-based energy sources

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