Presentation on theme: "Carbon Compounds 9.1 An Introduction to “Organic” Chemistry Pictures of molecules from Physical Science Concepts in Action, Pearson 2004 Both diamonds."— Presentation transcript:
Carbon Compounds 9.1 An Introduction to “Organic” Chemistry Pictures of molecules from Physical Science Concepts in Action, Pearson 2004 Both diamonds and pencil lead are composed of carbon atoms but look at the difference in their structure.
What makes “organic” hydrocarbon compounds different? Carbon & HydrogenThey always contain Carbon & Hydrogen 90% of all known compounds are “organic” The 4 valence electrons in Carbon atoms form covalent bonds with Hydrogen
Factors determining the properties of hydrocarbon compounds… 1.…the number of carbon atoms It may have one carbon as in Methane C H 4 or thousands like cotton. arranged 2. …how the carbon atoms are arranged straight chains, branched chains, or in rings. triple bonds 3...whether it has single, double or triple bonds H H C=C H H
A carbon bond is very flexible! Carbon shares its 4 valence electrons with other carbons or with Hydrogen atoms covalent bondsCarbon may form 4 single covalent bonds Or it can form 1 double and 2 single bonds = 4 Or 2 double bonds covalent bonds = 4
Hydro-carbons contain only Carbon and Hydrogen Example CH 4 Methane Gas that keeps your house warm. H 4 single bonds H -C- H H single bonds.Methane is called “saturated” because it has only single bonds.
Two of the 3 Types of Saturated Hydrocarbon are Chains
Ring The Third Type of Saturated Hydrocarbon is the Ring
Another name for Saturated Hydrocarbons is... Alkanes. HINT: Alkanes has a single lower case “a” and it has single bonds.
STOP here first day The second day do the back of the concept map and the rest of this ppt. The two concepts need to be separated into 2 days or confusion develops.
Un In contrast, Hydrocarbons with double/triple bonds are called Unsaturated triple bond double bond
Hydrocarbons Reviewing Unsaturated Hydrocarbons... Like saturated compounds, they can form chains, branched chains or rings Unlike saturated compounds, they have double or triple bonds in their structure Unlike saturated hydrocarbons, they are very reactive
unsaturated There are 3 different classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons 1. Alkenes have double bonds between carbons 2. Alkynes triple bonds between carbons 3. Aromatic hydrocarbons have rings with double or triple bonds in them
Alkenes 1. What are Alkenes? They are chains with one or more double bonds between carbons Hint: the word Alkene has a double e in it and... they have a double bonds H H C=C H H bananasExample: Ethene can be used to make bananas and tomatoes ripen fasted
Alkynes 2. How are Alkynes different? They are straight or branched chains with one or more TRIPLE carbon bonds. Hint: the “ ” in AlkYnes has 3 parts & they have a three part bond a triple bonds H-C=C-H Example: acetylene is used in welding torches that are able to melt metal at 3500 0 C. great fuelsThe triple carbon bonds store lots of chemical potential energy that can change to heat = great fuels
aromatic 3. What distinguishes aromatic hydrocarbons? Rings are unsaturated with lots of double bonds strong odors.They have strong odors. Used in artificial flavorings and colons
The word ar o matic has an “O” in it that reminds us of its shape
What element/s are in most “organic” compounds? A.Oxygen B.Nitrogen C.Oxygen and hydrogen D.Carbon and hydrogen
What % of all known compounds are “organic”? A.20 B.40 C.60 D.90
Name the factors that determine the properties of hydrocarbons A.…the number of carbon atoms B.…how the carbon atoms are arranged C...whether they have single, double or triple bonds D. all of the above
How many valence electrons does carbon share? A.One B.Two C.Four D.Six
Both butane and isobutane have the same formula C 4 H 10 but they are iosmeres because... A.They have different structural formulas B.Isobutane has a double carbon bond C.They have different elements in them D.Butane has a ring structures
Why is this called a saturated chain? A.There are too many Hydrogen atoms B.There are only single bonds C.Both of the above D.None of the above
When a carbon atom in a chain is bonded to more than one carbon atom the structure is called... A.Vertical B.Branched C.Tree shaped D.Split
Hydrocarbons that have double and triple bonds between carbon atoms are classified as... A.Saturated B.Multiples C.Clones D.Unsaturated H H C=C H H
What kind of carbon bonds are found in Alkenes (with 2 e’s) have? A.Many single bonds B.Double bonds C.Triple bonds D.Quadruple bonds
What shape are ar o matic hydrocarbons like Benzene? A.Rings B.Straight chains C.Branched chains D.Rectangle
BQ Quiz is coming! You will see these questions again. Mrs. Hilty will keep her promise.